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Lygodium microphyllum (Old World Climbing Fern)
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Click link below to download drone release publication:

First drone releases of the biological control agent Neomusotima conspurcatalis on Old World climbing fern


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US Army Corps. pilot preparing for release                                                       Dr. Lake and Andrea Carmona direct the drone pilot to release site

Picture provided by Dr. Aaron David                                                                                                                  Picture provided by Dr. Aaron David 

                     Click picture below to view a video of Lygodium microphyllum and the biocontrol agents to control it.   



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                               Research Scientist Robert Pemberton amidst of pre-biocontrol site of Lygodium Microphyllum

Click the following links for more information: 

Looking for Natural Enemies in Asia to Control Invasive Plants

Volatile chemistry, not phylogeny, predicts host range of a biological control agent of Old-World climbing fern.


Old world climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum) is an invasive weed that threatens many wetland communities, including the Everglades. The fern entered Florida as a commercial ornamental plant and was first documented to have become naturalized in 1965, however its explosive growth and rapid spread are relatively recent and causing concern.


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Image from Volin, J.C., Kruger, E.L., Volin, V.C. et al. Plant Ecol (2010) 208: 223.


L. microphyllum is native to wet areas in the Old World tropics and subtropics from west Africa to eastern and southern Africa, and eastern India through south-east Asia to northern Australia and the Pacific to Tahiti.


L. microphyllum is considered to be a good target for biological control for several reasons:

  1. It belongs to a taxonomically isolated group, not closely related to native or economic plants in Florida.
  2. It is not known to be a weed in its native range, apart from an unconfirmed report of weedy tendencies in Malaysia.
  3. Non-biological control methods are environmentally damaging and too expensive to use on the scale required to control it.


The UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants has created this excellent short educational video with more information