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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Manure Project FY12
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Recent Findings...
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Gas-permeable membrane systemRemoval and Recovery of Ammonia from Animal Production Systems: The use of gas-permeable membranes could be an effective approach to recover ammonia from livestock wastewater and from air in poultry and animal facilities. More Information:
Removal and Recovery of Ammonia from Liquid Manure... Technical Abstract   Full PDF Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Recovery of Ammonia from Poultry Litter...  Full PDF Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

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Second generation swine waste treatment systemDevelopment of a Second Generation Treatment System for Management of Livestock Manure: ARS Scientists at Florence, South Carolina, and business cooperators have developed a streamlined second-generation swine manure management process that delivers healthier pigs, healthier profits, and a healthier environment. U.S. Patent was granted for this new system. More Information:

Producers and Pigs Profit From Manure Management Process

PBS Series  

America's Heartland: Turning Hog Waste into Environmentally Friendly Fertilizer


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Immobilized anammox in laboratory   Deammonification of Swine Wastewater Using Partial Nitritation and Anammox: Use of immobilization techniques improved anammox biomass retention, positively affecting treatment process capacity. A single-tank process cuts 58% the oxygen requirements for nitrogen removal. 
More Information:
Novel Anammox Bacteria for Wastewater Treatment - ASA Presentation 2011

First International Anammox Symposium IANAS Japan 
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Immobilized Anammox

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Manufacturing Climate Solutions:imagesGHG Emission Reduction Using Aerobic Treatment of Swine Manure: Replacing anaerobic-lagoon-based systems with new aerobic system reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 97 percent. Significant profits are possible via the sale of generated carbon credits. More Information:
More carbon credits per pig! ... 
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Manufacturing Climate Solutions: Carbon-Reducing Technologies and U.S. Jobs

Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction... Interpretive Summary   Full PDF Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

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Quickwash of poultry litterRecovery of Phosphorus from Solid Manure:  Soil scientists developed a method to extract the phosphorus from manure, most of which is recovered in a "slow-release" form that is available for plant uptake. The new process, called quick wash, produces two different materials derived from poultry litter, a concentrated phosphorus material and a washed solid residue material that contains carbon and nitrogen but is low in phosphorus.
More Information: Mining Manure Phosphorus...

Prospects for Phosphorus Recovery... Interpretive Summary  Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

Fertilizer Effectiveness of Phosphorus... Interpretive Summary Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

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Scientist using retortState-of-the-Art Control System Ensures Biochar Reproducibility:  Engineers at ARS Florence designed and tested a novel control system for consistent batch production of biochar, a charcoal-like byproduct of carbonization of manure and plant waste materials. This automated control scheme precisely tuned the production process to a desired temperature. Using the highly accurate controls, swine-based biochars produced in both high and low temperature regimes were rich in stable carbon structures with predictable, repeatable design characteristics.
More Information: Stochastic State-Space Temperature Regulation...Interpretive Summary-Part I  Interpretive Summary-Part II

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 Heavy metal testingManure Biochars Stabilize Soil Heavy Metal Contaminants: ARS scientists at New Orleans, LA, and Florence, SC, conducted collaborative investigations to determine the effectiveness of manure biochars as binders of heavy metals in soils. High temperature biochars from feedlot manure, turkey and poultry litter exhibited the greatest heavy metal soil retention. These results suggest their utilization for sequestering heavy metals, thereby reducing contaminant movement in soils and improve water quality.  More Information: Retention of Heavy Metals in a Typic Kandiudult Amended...Interpretive Summary

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Image of biocharsBiochar Production from Blended Animal Manures: A commercial pilot-scale pyrolysis reactor system was operated for production of combustible gases and biochar from swine solids, chicken litter, and swine solids blended with rye grass. The energy content of combustible gases produced from swine solids and the swine-rye blend were slightly below that of natural gas. The biochars contained greater concentrations of phosphorous and potassium than original manure, suggesting usefulness as an alternative fertilizer.  
More Information: High-Temperature Pyrolysis of Blended Manures...Interpretive Summary Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

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High temperature reactorsEnergy and Biofuels from Animal Manure: Waste-to-Energy Opportunities:  The use of biological and thermochemical conversion technologies in livestock waste treatments can provide multiple value-added energy products. These products can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels.  We have reviewed bilogical and thermochecmical conversion technologies with potential to make future large scale livestock operations sustainable while generating on-farm renewable energy. More information: Livestock Waste-to-Bioenergy Generation...Interpretive Summary Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

Fueling the Farm

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Bermudagrass hayBioenergy Production Using Treated Swine Wastewater:Coastal bermudagrass can be grown as a bioenergy crop using a subsurface drip irrigation system distributing treated swine wastewater. Compared to fertilizer treatments, plots receiving treated swine wastewater generated more energy per hectare. The different production practices examined imposed minimal effects on the combustion characteristics of bermudagrass.
More Information: 

Thermogravimetric Characterization of Irrigated Bermudagrass... Interpretive Summary    Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

Bioenergy from Coastal bermudagrass...Interpretive Summary  Full PDF
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Isotherm graphManure and Biomass-based Hydrochar from Wet Pyrolysis can Remove Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) and Heavy Metals: ARS scientists and university collaborators found that bisphenol A, 17?-ethinyl estradiol, and phenenthrene can be removed by hydrochars made from hydrothermally carbonizing (i.e., wet pyrolysis) swine solids and chicken litter. Because of hydrochar's diversity in surface functionality, the hydrochar showed high sorption capacity for both polar and nonpolar pollutants. This finding opens a new valuable use of animal manures as an environmental sorbent. 
More Information:
Sorption of Bisphenol... Interpretive Summary  Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon
Chemical Structures of Swine... Interpretive Summary  Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

Hydrothermal Carbonization of Municipal Waste... Interpretive Summary  Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

Hydrothermal Carbonization of Biomass... Interpretive Summary  Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

Hydrogen Peroxide modification enhances... Interpretive Summary  Full PDF
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Image of anaerobic lagoonDenitrification in Anaerobic Lagoons Used to Treat Swine Wastewater: Much of the livestock production around the world including the USA is in confined livestock production. In the case of swine and dairy production, the wastewater is often treated in anaerobic lagoons to remove nitrogen.  The most well-established pathway for nitrogen treatment in wastewater is classical nitrification and denitrification.  While alternate pathways of denitrification may exist within or beneath the wastewater column, this research documents the lack of sufficient denitrification enzyme activity within the wastewater column of these anaerobic lagoons to support large nitrogen gas losses via classical nitrification and denitrification. More information: Denitrification in Anaerobic Lagoons... Interpretive Summary  Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon
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Gas emission test siteGas Emission from Agricultural Sites can be Accurately Measured by an Inverse-dispersion Technique: ARS scientists and university collaborator assessed the accuracy of an emerging micrometeorological method using an inverse dispersion model. When used with the open-path tunable diode absorption spectrometers, the inverse-dispersion technique predicted the known emissions from flat terrain and lagoon with very high accuracies ranging from 81 to 98%. This technique can be used to accurately measure emission from spray field, fumigation, and treatment lagoons.
More information:
Measuring Trace Gas Emission... Interpretive Summary   Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

Measuring Gas Emission from Lagoons... Interpretive Summary   Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

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Treatment constructed wetlandSuspended Sludge Layer in Treatment Wetlands Found to be Important for Denitrification:  The objectives of this study were to assess the magnitude of denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) in the suspended sludge layers of bulrush and cattail treatment wetlands, and evaluate the impact of nitrogen pretreatment on DEA in the suspended sludge layer.
More information: Denitrification of Nitrified and Non-Nitrified... Interpretive Summary Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

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Cold ReactorEfficient Wastewater Nitrification Under High Ammonia and Low Temperature Conditions:  A unique microbial community was identified that exhibited high nitrification activity under cold temperature conditions where nitrification was previous inhibited. This community was a mix of Nitrosomonas and microorganisms having floc forming or psychrotolerance characteristics.
More information: Characterization of a Microbial Community... Full PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF icon

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Bioresource Technology 100(2009) coverOECD Workshop: Livestock Waste Treatment Systems of the Future: The proceedings of the International OECD Workshop (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) held at Florence, South Carolina, were published in a Special Issue of Bioresource Technology. The Workshop took a synergistic, multidisciplinary approach to discuss livestock waste treatment systems of the future.
Editorial...PDFAdobe Acrobat PDF iconOECD CRP...     OECD logo
Special Issue Contents...

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Last Modified: 8/13/2016
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