Skip to main content
ARS Home » Southeast Area » Charleston, South Carolina » Vegetable Research » Docs » CGC » Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 12:91-103 (article 38) 1989

Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 12:91-103 (article 38) 1989
headline bar

Gene List for Cucumber

Lawrence K. Pierce and Todd C. Wehner

Agrigenetics, California (first author); Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7609 (second author)

Lists of the known genes for the Cucurbitaceae have been published previously in HortScience and the report of the Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. However, in the interest of updating and collecting the information on cucumber in one place, following is a complete list of the 105 known genes for Cucumis sativus L.

Gene symbol









androecious. Produces primarilystaminate flowers if recessive for F. A from MSU 713-5 and Gy 14A; a from An-11 and An-314, 2 selections from 'E-e-szan' of China.




apetalous. Male sterile. Anthers become sepal-like. Ap from 'Butchers Disease Resisting'; ap from 'Butchers Disease Resisting Mutant.




Anthracnose resistance. One of several genes for resistance to Colletotrichum lagenarium. Ar from PI 175111, PI 175120, PI 179676, PI 183308, PI 183445; ar from 'Palmetto' and 'Santee'.




Black or brown spines. Dominant to white spines on fruit. B from 'Richard's Invincible', 'Nezhin', 'Muron', and 'Everyday'; b from 'White Spine, 'Vyaznikov', 'Berlizov', and 'Vickery'.

15, 31, 33, 36, 86, 87, 95, 103



Black spine-2. Interacts with B to produce F2 of 15 black : 1 white spine. B-2 from Wisc. 9362; b-2 from PI 212333 and 'Pixie'.



Black spines-3. Interacts with B-4 to produce F2 of 9 black:7 white spine. B-3 from LJ90430, b-3 from MSU 41.




Black spines-4. Interacts conversely of B-3. B-4 from LJ 90430; b-4 from MSU 41.




bitterfree. All plant parts lacking cucurbitacins. bitterfree. Bi from a Dutch variety; bi from an 'Improved Long Green' selection.




blind. Terminal bud lacking after temperature shock. Bl from 'Perseus' and inbred BDR; bl from 'Hunderup' and inbred HP3.




blunt leaf. Leaves have obtuse apices and reduced lobing and serration. bla from a mutant of 'Wisc. SMR-18'.




Bitter fruit. Fruit with extreme bitter flavor. Bt from PI 173889 (Wild Hanzil Medicinal Cucumber); bt from 'Model', 'National' and 'Long Green'.




bush. Shortened internodes. Bu from 'Wisc. SMR 12' and others; bu from 'KapAhk 1.




Bacterial wiltresistance. Resistance to Erwinia tracheiphila. Bw from PI 200818; bw from 'Marketer'.

56, 73



cream mature fruit color. Interaction with R is evident in the F2 ratio of 9 red (R +) : 3 orange (R c) : 3 yellow (++) : 1 cream (+ c).




Corynespora cassicola resistance. Resistance to target leaf spot; dominant to susceptibility. Cca from Royal Sluis Hybrid 72502; cca from GY 3.




Cladosporium cucumerinumresistance. Resistance to scab.Ccu from line 127.31, a selfed progeny of 'Longfellow'; ccu from 'Davis Perfect' and other selections.

2, 4, 5, 7



chlorophyll deficient. Seedling normal at first, then becoming light green; lethal unless grafted. Cd from normal progeny of the backcross of MSU 71305 x 'Midget' to 'Midget'; cd from a mutant selection of the same source.




closed flower. Flowers do not open; male sterile.(non-fertile pollen). cl from a Korean line.




Colletotrichum lagenariumresistance. Resistance to race 1 of anthracnose; recessive to susceptibility. Cla from 'Wisc. SMR 18'; cla from SC 19B.




Corynespora melonis resistance. Resistance to C. melonis; dominant to susceptibility. Cm from 'Spotvrie'; cm from 'Esvier'




Cucumber mosaic virus resistance. One of several genes for resistance to CMV Cmv from 'Wisc. SMR 12', their resistance from 'Chinese Long' except 'Wisc. SMR 15' which also gets it from 'Tokyo Long Green'. cmv from 'National Pickling' and Wisc SR 6.

84, 93



green corolla. Green petals which turn white with age and enlarged reproductive organs; female sterile. co is from a selection of 'Extra Early Prolific'.

18, 32



cordate leaves-1. Leaves are cordate, cor-1 from 'Nezhinskii'.




cordate leaves-2. Leaves are nearly round with revolute margins and no serration. Insect pollination is hindered by short calyx segments which tightly clasp the corolla preventing full opening. cor-2 from an induced mutant of 'Lemon'.




compact. Reduced internode length, poorly developed tendrils, small flowers. Cp from 'Chipper', Gy 3, 'Poinsett', 'Tablegreen 65' and PG 57; cp from PI308916.




crinkled leaf. Leaves and seed crinkled.




carpel splitting. Fruits develop deep longitudinal splits. Cs from Gy 14A; cs from TAMU 1043 and TAMU 7210 which are second and fifth generation selections of MSU 3249 x SC 25.

13, 60



Dullfruit skin. Dull skin of American cultivars, dominant to glossy skin of most European cultivars. D from 'Vickery', 'Nezhin'; d from 'Everyday' and 'Galakhov'.

62, 86, 87



determinatehabit. Short vine with stem terminating in flowers; modified by In-de and other genes; degree of dominance depends on gene background.De from 'Stono', 'Straight Eight', 'SMR 58', MR 17, MR 25, 'Palmetto', 'Napa', 'Highmoor', 'Burpee's Extra Early', 'Ashley', 'SMR 17', CU 54-467, CU 55-610, CU 56-388, 'Marketeer' and 'Tokyo'; de from Penn 76.60G, Minn 158.60, 'Hardin's PG 57', 'Hardin's Tree Cucumber' and S2-1 (an inbred selection from line 541).

20, 26, 33, 56



delayed flowering. Flowering delayed by long photoperiod; associated with seed dormancy. Df from 'Marketer', Wisc. 1606, Wisc. 1609 and Wisc 1548; df from 'Baroda' (PI 212896) and PI 215589 (C. hardwickii).

19, 83



diabrotica resistance. Resistance to the spotted and banded cucumber beetle. di from 'Eversweet'.




delayed growth. Reduced growth rate; shortening of hypocotyl and first internodes. Dl from 'Marketer', 'Marketmore' and 'Tablegreen'; dl from 'Dwarf Marketmore' and 'Dwarf Tablegreen' both deriving dwarfness from 'Hardin's PG 57'.




downy mildewresistance. One of several genes for resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Dm from Sluis & Groot Line 4285; dm from 'Poinsett'.

36, 85, 90



divided leaf. True leaves are partly or fully divided, often resulting in compound leaves with 2 to 5 leaflets and having incised corollas. Dvl from 'Levo; dvl from lot 318 and 319.




dwarf. Short internodes. dw from an induced mutant of 'Lemon'.




Empty chambers-l. Carpels of fruits separated from each other, leaving a small to large cavity in the seed cell. Es-1 from 002-75; es-1 from Gy 30-75




Empty chambers-2. Carpels of fruits separated from each other, leaving a small to large cavity in the seed cell. Es-2 from PP-2-75; es-2 from Gy-30-75.



D, st

Female. High degree of female sex expression; interacts with a and M; strongly modified by environment and gene background. F and f are from the variety 'Japanese'.

25, 42, 43, 62, 82, 87



fasciated. Plants have flat stems, short internodes, and rugose leaves. fa was from a selection of 'White Lemon'.

65, 81



Flower bud abortion. Preanthesis abortion of floral buds, ranging from 10 to 100%. Fba from MSU 713-5; fba from MSU 0612.




Fusariumoxysporum f. sp. cucumerinumresistance. Resistance to fusarium wilt; dominant to susceptibility. Foc from Wisc. 248; foc from 'Shimshon'




golden leaves. Golden color of lower leaves. G and g are both from different selections of 'Nezhin'.




gooseberryfruit. Small, oval shaped fruit. Gb from 'Nehzin'; gb from the 'Klin mutant'.




golden cotyledon. Butter colored cotyledons; seedlings die after 6 to 7 days. Gc from 'Burpless Hybrid'; gc from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'.




ginko. Leaves reduced and distorted, resembling leaves of Gingko; male and female sterile. Complicated background: It was in a segregating population whose immediate ancestors were offspring of crosses and BC's involving 'National', 'Chinese Long', 'Tokyo Long Green', 'Vickery', 'Early Russian', 'Ohio 31' and an unnamed white spine slicer.




glabrous. Foliage lacking trichomes; fruit without spines. Gl from 'Mayak 422' and 'Odnostebelnyi'; gl from NCSU 75 and M834-6.

35, 69



glabrate. Stem and petioles glabrous, laminae slightly pubescent. Glb from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'; glb from 'Burpless Hybrid'.




gynoecious. Recessive gene for high degree of female sex expression. Gy and gy are both found in different selections (S10) made from 'Borszagowski'.




Heavynetting of fruit. Dominant to no netting and completely linked or pleiotropic with black spines (B) and red mature fruit color (R).

33, 87



Intensifierof P. Modifies effect of P on fruit warts in Cucumis sativus var. tuberculatus.




Intensifierof de. Reduces internode length and branching of de plants. In-de and in-de are from different selections (S5-1 & S5-6, respectively) from a determinant inbred S2-1 which is a selection of line 541.




intensifier offemale sex expression. Increases degree of female expression of F plants. In-F from monoecious line 18-l; in-F from MSU 713-5.




loculenumber. Many fruit locules and pentamerous androecium, 5 locules recessive to the normal number of 3.




long hypocotyl. As much as a 3 fold increase in hypocotyl length. Lh from MSU 713-5; lh from a 'Lemon' mutant.




little leaf. Normal sized fruits on plants with miniature leaves and smaller stems. Ll from Wisc 2757; ll from 'Little John.

27, 94


light sensitive. Pale and smaller cotyledons, lethal at high light intensity. Ls from 'Burpless Hybrid'; ls from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'.



a, g,

andromonoecious. Plants are andromonoecious if (m +); monoecious if (++); gynoecious if (+ F); and hermaphroditic if (m F). M from 'Chicago Pickling' and 'Long Green'; m from 'Lemon'.

74, 82, 87, 91, 103



andromonoecious-2. Bisexual flowers with normal ovaries.

34, 47


pf+, pfd, pfP

multi-pistillate. Several pistillate flowers per node, recessive to single pistillate flowers per node, recessive to single pistillate flower per node. Mp from Gy 14A and CU 551F; mp from MSU 604G and MSU 598G.

24, 51



Multi-pistillate Several pistillate flowers per node. Single dominant gene with several minor modifiers. Mp-2 from MSU 3091-1; mp-2 from Gy 3.




male sterile-1. Male flowers abort before anthesis, partially female sterile. ms-1 from 'Black Diamond' and 'A&C'.

71, 81



male sterile-2. Male sterile; pollen abortion occurs after first mitotic division of the pollen grain nucleus. Ms-2 from 'Burpless Hybrid'; ms-2 from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'..




negativegeotropic peduncle response. Pistillate flowers upright; recessive to pendent position of most cultivars.




numerous spines. Few spines on the fruit is dominant to many. Ns from 'Spartan Salad', 'Wisc. 'SMR-18' and 'Gy 2 cp cp' ss from 'Wisc 2757.'

22, 23



Orange-yellow corolla. Orange-yellow dominant to light yellow. O and o are both from 'Nezhin'.




opposite leaf arrangement. Opposite leaf arrangement is recessive to alternate and has incomplete penetrance. opp from 'Lemon'.




Prominent tubercles. Prominent on yellow rind of Cucumis sativus var. tuberculatus. Incompletely dominant to brown rind without tubercles. P from 'Klin'; p from 'Nezhin'.




Parthenocarpy. Sets fruit without pollination.Pc from 'Spotvrie'; pc from MSU 713-205.

59, 61, 96



pale lethal. Slightly smaller pale green cotyledons; lethal after 6 to 7 days. Pl from 'Burpless Hybrid'; pl from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'..




powdery mildewresistance-1. Resistance to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. pm-1 from 'Natsufushinari'.

31, 40, 80



powdery mildewresistance-2. Resistance to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. pm-2 from 'Natsufushinari'.

31, 40, 80



powdery mildewresistance-3. Resistance to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. pm-3 found in PI 200815 and the PI 200818.

40, 80


s, pm

powdery mildew resistance expressed by the hypocotyl. Resistance to powdery mildew as noted by no fungal symptoms appearing on seedling cotyledons is recessive to susceptibility. Pm-h from 'Wisc. SMR-18'; pm-h from Gy 2 cp cp', 'Spartan Salad' and 'Wisc. 2757'.

22, 80



protruding ovary. Exerted carpels.




pseudomonas lachrymans resistance. resistance to pseudomonas lachrymans is recessive. Psl from 'National Pickling' and 'Wisc. SMR 18'; psl from MSU 9402 and Gy 14A.




Redmature fruit. Interacts with c; linked or pleiotropic with B and H.




revolute cotyledon. Cotyledons short, narrow, and cupped downwards; enlarged perianth.Rc from 'Burpless Hybrid'; rc from 'Burpless Hybrid' mutant.




rosette; short internodes muskmelon-like leaves. Ro from 'Megurk', the result of a cross involving a mix of cucumber and muskmelon pollen.




spine size and frequency. Many small fruit spines, characteristic of European cultivars is recessive to the few large spines of most American cultivars. S from 'Vickery', 'Vyaznikov' and 'Berlizov'; s from 'Everyday', 'Nezhin' and 'Muron'.

13, 62, 86, 87



spine-2. Acts in duplicate recessive epistatic fashion with s-3 to produce many small spines on the fruit. S-2 from Gy 14; s-2 from TAMU 72210.




spine-3. Acts in duplicate recessive epistatic fashion with s-2 to produce many small spines on the fruit. S-3 from Gy 14; s-3 from TAMU 7220.




salt tolerance. Tolerance to high salt levels is attributable to a major gene in the homozygous recessive state and may be modified by several minor genes. Sa from PI 177361; sa from PI 192940.




stunted cotyledons. Small concavely curved cotyledons; stunted plants with cupped leaves; abnormal flowers. Wisc. 9594 and Wisc. 9597 were used as heterozygous parents.

77, 78



Sulfur dioxideresistance. Less than 20% leaf damage in growth chamber. Sd from 'National Pickling'; sd from 'Chipper'.




short petiole. Leaf petioles offirst nodes 20% the length of normal. sp from the Russian mutant line 1753.




small spines. Large, coarse fruit spines is dominant to small, fine fruit spines. Ss from 'Spartan Salad', 'Wisc. SMR-18' and 'Gy 2 cp cp; ss from 'Wisc 2757.

22, 23



Tallplant. Tall height incompletely dominant to short height.




tendrilless. Tendrils lacking; associated with misshaped ovaries and brittle leaves. Td from 'Model' and Sc 8M ('Pixie'); td from a mutant of 'Southern Pickler'.




tender skinof fruit. Thin, tender skin of European cultivars; recessive to the thick, tough skin of most American cultivars. Te from 'Vickery'; te from 'Everyday'.

62, 86



Trimonoecious. Producing male, bisexual, and female flowers in this sequence during plant development. Tr from Tr-12, a selection of a Japanese variety belonging to the Fushinari group; tr fromH-7-25, MOA-309, MOA-3-3 and AH-311-3.




Tuberculate fruit. Warty fruit, characteristic of American cultivars is dominant to the smooth, nonwarty fruits of most European cultivars. Tu from 'White Spine' and 'Vickery'; tu from 'Richard's Invincible' and 'Everyday'.

86, 95



uniformimmature fruit color. Uniform color of European cultivars such as 'Everyday' recessive to the mottled or stippled color of most American cultivars. U from 'Vickery'; u from 'Everyday'.

5, 59



umbrellaleaf.Leaf margins turn down at low relative humidity making leaves look cupped. Source of ul unknown.




virescent. Yellow leaves becoming green.

62, 87



variegated virescent. Yellow cotyledons, becoming green; variegated leaves.




whiteimmature fruit color. White is recessive to green .W from 'Vaughn', 'Clark's Special', 'Florida Pickle' and 'National Pickling'; w from 'Bangalore'.




white flesh. Intense white flesh color; recessive to dingy white; acts with yf to produce F2 of 12 white: (++ and + wf): 3 yellow (yf +): 1 orange (yf wf). Wf from EG and G6, each being dingy white (++); wf from NPI which is orange (yf wf).




Watermelon mosaic virus resistance. Resistance to strain 2 of watermelon mosaic virus. Wmv from 'Kyoto 3 Feet'; wmv from 'Bet-Alfa'.


wmv 1-1


watermelon mosaic virus-1 resistance. Resistance to strain 1 of watermelon mosaic virus by limited systemic translocation; lower leaves may show severe symptoms. Wmv-1-1 from Wisc. 2757; wmv-1-1 from 'Surinam'.




yellow cotyledons-1. Cotyledons yellow at first, later turning green. Yc-1 from Ohio M.R. No. 25; yc-1 from a mutant of Ohio M.R. No. 25.




yellow cotyledons-2. Virescent cotyledons. Yc-2 from 'Burpless Hybrid'; yc-2 from a mutant of 'Burpless Hybrid'.

101. 102



yellow flesh. Interacts with yf to produce F2 of 12 white (++ and + wf) : 3 yellow (yf +) : 1 orange (yf wf). Yf from 'Natsufushinari' which has an intense white flesh (Yf wf); yf from PI 200815 which has a yellow flesh (yf Wf).




yellow-green immature fruit color. Recessive to dark green and epistatic to light green.




yellow plant. Light yellow green foliage; slow growth.




zucchini yellows mosaic virus. Inheritance is incomplete. Believed to be inherited in a recessive fashion with the source of resistance being 'TMG-1'.


Literature Cited

  1. Aalders, L.E. 1959. "Yellow cotyledon", a new cucumber mutation. Canad. J. Genet. Cyt. 1:10-12.
  2. Abul-Hayja, Z., P.H. Williams. 1976. Inheritance of two seedling markers in cucumber. HortScience11:145.
  3. Abul-Hayja, Z., P.H. Williams and C.E. Peterson. 1978. Inheritance of resistance to anthracnose and target leaf spot in cucumbers. Plant Dis. Rptr. 62:43-45.
  4. Abul-Hayja, Z., P.H. Williams, and E.D.P. Whelan. 1975. Independence of scab and bacterial wilt resistance and ten seedling markers in cucumber. HortScience 10:423-424..
  5. Andeweg, J.M. 1956. The breeding of scab-resistant frame cucumbers in the Netherlands. Euphytica 5:185-195.
  6. Andeweg, J.M. and J.W. DeBruyn. 1959. Breeding of non-bitter cucumbers. Euphytica 8:13-20.
  7. Bailey, R.M. and I.M. Burgess. 1934. Breeding cucumbers resistant to scab. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 32:474-476.
  8. Barham, W.S. 1953. The inheritance of a bitter principle in cucumbers. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62:441-442.
  9. Barnes, W.C. and W.M. Epps. 1952. Two types of anthracnose resistance in cucumbers. Plant Dis. Reptr. 36:479-480.
  10. Bressan, R.A., L. LeCureux, L.G. Wilson, P. Filner, and L.R. Baker. 1981. Inheritance of resistance to sulfur dioxide in cucumbers. HortScience 16:332-333.
  11. Burnham, M., S.C. Phatak and C.E. Peterson. 1966. Graft-aided inheritance study of a chlorophyll deficient cucumber. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 89:386-389.
  12. Carlsson, G. 1961. Studies of blind top shoot and its effect on the yield of greenhouse cucumbers. Acta Agr. Scand. 11:160-162.
  13. Carruth, N.M. 1975. A genetic study of the inheritance of rupturing carpel in fruit of cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. Ph.D. Dis., Texas A&M Univ. College Station
  14. Chambliss, O.L. 1978. Cucumber beetle resistance in the Cucurbitaceae; Inheritance and breeding. HortScience 13:366 (Abstr.)
  15. Cochran, F.D. 1938. Breeding cucumbers for resistance to downy mildew. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 35:541-543.
  16. Cohen, S., E. Gertman and N. Kedar. 1971. Inheritance of resistance to melon mosaic virus in cucumbers. Phytopathology 61:253-255.
  17. Cowen, N.M. and D.B. Helsel. 1983. Inheritance of 2 genes for spine color and linkages in a cucumber cross. J. Hered. 74:308-310.
  18. Currence, T.M. 1954. Vegetable crops breeding. Mimeographed teaching manual, Univ. Minn.
  19. Della Vecchia, P.T., C.E. Peterson and J.E. Staub. 1982. Inheritance of short-day response to flowering in crosses between a Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii (R.) Alef. line and Cucumis sativus L. lines. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 5:4
  20. Denna, D.W. 1971. Expression of determinate habit in cucumbers. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 96:277-279.
  21. Dessert, J.M., L.R. Baker and J.F. Fobes. 1982. Inheritance of reaction to Pseudomonas lachrymans in pickling cucumber. Euphytica31:847-856.
  22. Fanourakis, N.E. 1984. Inheritance and linkage studies of the fruit epidermis structure and investigation of linkage relations of several traits and of meiosis in cucumber. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison.
  23. Fankourakis, N.E. and P.W. Simon. 1987. Analysis of genetic linkage in the cucumber. J. Hered. 78:238-242.
  24. Fujieda, K. V. Fujita, Y. Gunji and K. Takahashi. 1982. The inheritance of plural-pistillate flowering in cucumber. J. Jap. Soc. Hort. Sci. 51:172-176.
  25. Galun, E. 1961. Study of the inheritance of sex expression in the cucumber. The interaction of major genes with modifying genetic and non-genetic factors. Genetica 32:134-163.
  26. George, W.L., Jr. 1970. Dioecism in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. Genetics 64:23-28.
  27. Goode, M.J., J.L. Bowers and A. Bassi, Jr. 1980. Little-leaf, a new kind of pickling cucumber plant. Ark. Farm Res. 29:4.
  28. Gornitskaya, I.P. 1967. A spontaneous mutant of cucumber variety Nezhinskii 12. Genetika 3(11):169.
  29. Grimbly, P.E. 1980. An apetalous male sterile mutant in cucumber. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 3:9.
  30. Groff, D., and M.L. Odland. 1963. Inheritance of closed-flower in the cucumber. J. Hered. 54:191-192.
  31. Hujieda, K. and R. Akiya. 1962. Genetic study of powdery mildew resistance and spine color on fruit in cucumber. J. Jap. Soc. Hort. Sci. 31:30-32
  32. Hutchins, A.E. 1935. The inheritance of a green flowered variation in Cucumis sativus. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 33:513.
  33. Hutchins, A.E. 1940. Inheritance in the cucumber. J. Agr. Res. 60:117-128.
  34. Iezzoni, A.F., C.E. Peterson and G.E. Tolla. 1982. Genetic analysis of two perfect flowered mutants in cucumber. J. Amer. Hort. Sci. 107:678-681.
  35. Inggamer, H. and O.M.B. de Ponti. 1980. The identity of genes for glabrousness in Cucumis sativus L. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 3:14.
  36. Jenkins, J.M., Jr. 1946. Studies on the inheritance of downy mildew resistance. J. Hered. 37:267-276.
  37. John, C.A. and J.D. Wilson. 1952. A "ginko leafed' mutation in the cucumber, J, Hered, 43:47-48
  38. Jones, R.W. 1984. Studies related to genetic salt tolerance in the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. Ph.D. Thesis Texas A&M Univ , College Station.
  39. Kauffman, C.S. and R.L. Lower. 1976. Inheritance of an extreme dwarf plant type in the cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 101:150-151.
  40. Kooistra, E. 1971. Powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. Euphytica 17:326-244
  41. Kooistra, E. 1971. Inheritance of flesh and skin colors in powdery mildew resistant cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) . Euphytica 20:521-523
  42. Kubicki, B. 1965. New possibilities of applying different sex types in cucumber breeding. Genet. Polonica 6:241-250.
  43. Kubicki, B. 1969. Investigations on sex determination in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).IV. Multiple alleles of locus Acr. Genet Polonica 10:23-68.
  44. Kubicki, B. 1969. Investigation of sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). V. Genes controlling intensity of femaleness, Genet. Polonica10:69-86.
  45. Kubicki, B. 1969. Investigations on sex determination in cucumbers (Cucumis sativusL.). VI. Androecism. Genet. Polonica 10:87-99.
  46. Kubicki, B. 1969. Investigations on sex determination in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) L.). VII. Trimonoecism. Genet. Polonica 10:123-143.
  47. Kubicki, B. 1974. New sex types in cucumber and their uses in breeding work. Proc. XIX Internatl. Hort. Congr. 3:475-485.
  48. Kubicki, B. and A. Korzeniewska. 1983. Inheritance of the presence of empty chambers in fruit as related to other fruit characters in cucumbers (Cucumis sativusL.). Genet. Polonica 24:327-342.
  49. Miller, G.A. and W.L. George, Jr. 1979. Inheritance of dwarf and determinate growth habits in cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 104:114-117.
  50. Miller, J.C., Jr. and J.E. Quisenberry. 1978. Inheritance of flower bud abortion in cucumber. HortScience 13:44-45.
  51. Nandgaonkar, A.K. and L.R. Baker. 1981. Inheritance of multi-pistillate flowering habit in gynoecious pickling cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 106:755-757.
  52. Netzer, D., S. Niegro and E. Galun. 1977. A dominant gene conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in cucumber. Phytopathology 67:525-527.
  53. den Nijs, A.P.M. and I.W. Boukema. 1983. Short petiole, a useful seedling marker for genetic studies in cucumber. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 8:8-9.
  54. den Nijs, A.P.M. and O.M.B. de Ponti. 1983. Umbrella leaf: a gene for sensitivity to low humidity in cucumber. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 6:24.
  55. den Nijs, A.P.M. and H.O. Mackiewicz. 1980. "Divided leaf", a recessive seedling marker in cucumber. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 3:24.
  56. Nuttall, W.W. and J.J. Jasmin. 1958. The inheritance of resistance to bacterial wilt (Erwinia tracheiphila E.F.SM. Holland) in cucumber. Canad. J. Plant Sci. 38:401-404.
  57. Odland, M.L. and D.W. Groff. 1963. Inheritance of crinkled-leaf cucumber. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 83:536-537.
  58. Odland, M.L. and D.W. Groff. 1963. Linkage of vine type and geotropic response with sex forms in cucumber Cucumis sativus L. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 82:358-369.
  59. Pike, L.M. and C.E. Peterson. 1969. Inheritance of parthenocarpy in the cucumber (Cucumis sativusL.). Euphytica 18:101-105
  60. Pike, L.M. and T.F. Carruth. 1977. A genetic study of the inheritance of rupturing carpel in fruit of cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. HortScience 12:235 (Abstr,).
  61. dePonti, O.M. and F. Garretsen. 1976. Inheritance of parthenocarpy in pickling cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) and linkage with other characters. Euphytica 25:633-642.
  62. Poole, C.F. 1944. Genetics of cultivated cucurbits. J. Hered. 35:122-128
  63. Provvidenti, R. 1985. Source of resistance to viruses in two accessions of Cucumis sativus, Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 8:12.
  64. Pyzenkov, V.I. and G.A. Kosareva. 1981. A spontaneous mutant of the dwarf type. Bull. Appl. Bot. Genet. P1. Breed. 69:15-21.
  65. Robinson, R.W. 1978. Fasciation in the cucumber. cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 1:11a.
  66. Robinson, R.W. 1987. Blunt leaf apex, a cucumber mutant induced by a chemical mutagen. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 10:6.
  67. Robinson, R.W. 1987. Cordate, a leaf shape gene with pleiotropic effects on flower structure and insect pollination. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 10:8.
  68. Robinson, R.W. 1987. Inheritance of opposite leaf arrangement in Cucumis sativus L. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 10:10
  69. Robinson, R.W. and W. Mishanec. 1964. A radiation-induced seedling marker gene for cucumbers. Vegetable Improvement Newsletter 6:2.
  70. Robinson, R.W. and W. Mishanec. 1965. A new dwarf cucumber. Veg. Improv. Newsl. 7:23.
  71. Robinson. R.W. and W. Mishanec. 1967. Male sterility in the cucumber. Veg. Improv. Newsl. 9:2.
  72. Robinson, R.W. and J.W. Shail. 1981. A cucumber mutant with increased hypocotyl and internode length. Cucurbit Genet Coop. Rpt. 4:19-20.
  73. Robinson, R.W. and T.W. Whitaker. 1974. Cucumis. In: R.C. King (ed.), Handbook of Genetics. Vol. 2. Plenum Press, NY.
  74. Rosa, J.T. 1928. The inheritance of flower types in Cucumisand Citrullus. Hilgardia 3:233-250.
  75. Rowe, P. and J.L. Bowers. 1965. The inheritance and potential of an irradiation induced tendrilless character in cucumbers. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 86:436-441.
  76. de Ruiter, A.C., B.J. van der Knap and R.W. Robinson. 1980. Rosette, a spontaneous cucumber mutant arising from cucumber-muskmelon mentor pollen. Cucurbit Genetics Coop. Rpt. 3:4.
  77. Shanmugasundarum, S. and P.H. Williams. 1971. A cotyledon marker gene in cucumbers. Vegetable Improvement Newsletter 13:4.
  78. Shanmugasundarum, S., P.H. Williams and C.E. Peterson. 1971. A recessive cotyledon marker gene in cucumber with pleiotropic effects. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 7:555-556.
  79. Shanmugasundarum, S., P.H. Williams and C.E. Peterson. 1971. Inheritance of fruit spine color in cucumber. HortScience 6:213-214.
  80. Shanmugasundarum, S., P.H. Williams and C.E. Peterson. 1971. Inheritance of resistance to powdery mildew in cucumber. Phytopathology 61:1218-1221.
  81. Shifriss, 0. 1950. Spontaneous mutations in the American varieties of Cucumis sativus L. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 55:351-357.
  82. Shifriss, O. 1961. Sex control in cucumbers. J. Hered. 52:5-12.
  83. Shifriss, 0. and W.L. George, Jr. 1965. Delayed germination and flowering in cucumbers. Nature 506:424-425.
  84. Shifriss, O. C.H. Myers and C. Chupp. 1942. Resistance to mosaic virus in cucumber., Phytopathology 32:773-784.
  85. Shimizu, S., K. Kanazawa and A. Kato. 1963. Studies on the breeding of cucumber for resistance to Downy Mildew. Part 2. Difference of resistance to Downy mildew among the cucumber varieties and te utility of he cucumber variety resistance to Downy Mildew. Bul. Hort. Res. Sta. Japan. Ser. A Np. 2:80-81.
  86. Strong, W.J. 1931. Breeding experiments with the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Sci. Agr. 11:333-346.
  87. Tkachenko, N.N. 1935. Preliminary results of a genetic investigation of the cucumber - Cucumis sativus L. Bull Appl. P1. Breed., Ser. 2, 3:311-356.
  88. Thaxton, P.M. 1974. A genetic study of the clustering characteristic of pistillate flowers in the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. M.S. Thesis, Texas A&M Univ., College Station.
  89. van Es, J. 1958. Bladruuresistantie by Konkommers. Zaabelangen 12:116-117.
  90. van Vliet, G.J.A. and W.D. Meysing. 1974. Inheritance of resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis Rost. in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Euphytica 23:251-255.
  91. Wall, J.R. 1967. Correlated inheritance of sex expression and fruit shape in Cucumis. Euphytica 23:251-255.
  92. Wang, Y.J., R. Provvidenti and R.W. Robinson. 1984. Inheritance of resistance to watermelon mosaic virus 1 in cucumber. HortScience 19:587-588.
  93. Wasuwat, S.L. and J.C. Walker. 1961. Inheritance of resistance in cucumber to cucumber mosaic virus. Phytopathology 51:423-428.
  94. Wehner, T.C., J.E. Staub and C.E. Peterson. 1987. Inheritance of LittleLeaf and multi-branched plant type in cucumber. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rept. 10:33.
  95. Wellington, R. 1913. Mendelian inheritance of epidermal characters in the fruit of Cucumis sativus. Science 38:61.
  96. Wellington, R. and L.R. Hawthorn. 1928. A parthenocarpic hybrid derived from a cross between an English forcing cucumber and the Arlington White Spine. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 26:97-100.
  97. Whelan, E.D.P. 1971. Golden cotyledon; a radiation-induced mutant in cucumber. HortScience 6:343.
  98. Whelan, E.D.P. 1972. A cytogenetic study of a radiation-induced male sterile mutant of cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 26:97-100.
  99. Whelan, E.D.P. 1972. Inheritance of a radiation-induced light sensitive mutant of cucumber. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 97:765-767.
  100. Whelan, E.D.P. 1973. Inheritance and linkage relationship of two radiation-induced seedling mutants of cucumber. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 15:597-603.
  101. Whelan, E.D.P. and B.B. Chubey. 1973. Chlorophyll content of new cotyledon mutants of cucumber. HortScience 8:30-32.
  102. Whelan, E.D.P., P.H. Williams and A. Abul-Hayja. 1975. The inheritance of two induced cotyledon mutants of cucumber. HortScience 10:267-269.
  103. Younger, V.B. 1952. A study of the inheritance of several characters in the cucumber. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota-St. Paul.
  104. Zijlstra, S. 1987. Further linkage studies in Cucumis sativus L. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt. 10:39.