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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANAGEMENT OF TEMPERATE FRUIT NUT AND SPECIALTY CROP GENETIC RESOURCES

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Oregon)

Title: Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) center of origin provides sources of disease resistance

Author
item Postman, Joseph

Submitted to: Acta Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 30, 2012
Publication Date: May 20, 2012
Citation: Postman, J.D. 2012. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) center of origin provides sources of disease resistance. Acta Horticulturae. 948:229-234.

Interpretive Summary: Quince is a close relative of apples and pears. It has been cultivated for thousands of years in central Asia and the Middle East for its fruit, and for hundreds of years as a dwarfing rootstock for pears. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, Oregon has assembled a diverse living quince collection that includes wild collected accessions, landrace genotypes and named cultivars from the center of origin in the Middle East and Central Asia. One self-rooted tree of each selection is maintained in a 2 acre orchard. Trees were evaluated annually from 2006 to 2010 for incidence of naturally occurring diseases including leaf and fruit spot, powdery mildew, rust and fire blight. No fungicides were applied to trees. Leaf spot is prevalent most years at the site and plant response ranged from highly susceptible to resistant. Rust and powdery mildew occurred in some years when environmental conditions were suitable. Fire blight infections were not common and diseased shoots were removed when observed. Many quince clones exhibited resistance to individual diseases. Several selections including ‘Limon’ from Turkey, TE-2-73 and ‘Rannyaya Tange’ from Turkmenistan, and ‘Kuganskaya’ from Ukraine exhibited resistance to all three fungal diseases. The NPGS quince collection, with diverse representation that includes much of this crop's natural wild and cultivated distribution, is an important source of genes for adaptation to the diseases that impact production in the U.S.

Technical Abstract: Quince, Cydonia oblonga Mill., is a close relative of apples (Malus sp.) and pears (Pyrus sp.) in the Rosaceae family. It has been cultivated for thousands of years in central Asia and the Middle East for its fruit, and for hundreds of years as a dwarfing rootstock for pears. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, Oregon has assembled a diverse living Cydonia collection that includes wild collected accessions, landrace genotypes and named cultivars from the center of origin in the Middle East and Central Asia. One self-rooted tree each of 125 accessions is maintained in a 1 hectare orchard. Trees were evaluated annually from 2006 to 2010 for incidence of naturally occurring diseases including Fabraea leaf and fruit spot (Diplocarpon mespili (Sorauer) B. Sutton (=Fabraea maculata)), powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.), rust (Gymnosporangium sp.) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al). A standard rating system of 1 (no disease) to 9 (severe symptoms) was used for all diseases. No fungicides were applied to trees. Fabraea leaf spot is prevalent most years at the site and plant response ranged from highly susceptible to resistant. Rust and powdery mildew occurred in some years when environmental conditions were suitable. Fire blight infections were not common and strikes were removed when observed. Many quince clones exhibited resistance to individual fungal pathogens. Several selections including ‘Limon’ from Turkey, TE-2-73 and ‘Rannyaya Tange’ from Turkmenistan, and ‘Kuganskaya’ from Ukraine exhibited resistance to all three fungal diseases. The NPGS quince collection, with diverse representation that includes much of Cydonia’s natural wild and cultivated distribution, is an important source of genes for adaptation to the diseases that attack this crop.

Last Modified: 4/16/2014
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