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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Citrus Huanglongbing: The Pathogen and Its Impact

Authors
item Gottwald, Timothy
item Da Graca, John - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Bassanezi, Renato - FUNDECITRUS

Submitted to: Plant Health Progress
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 19, 2007
Publication Date: September 6, 2007
Citation: Gottwald, T.R., Da Graca, J.V., Bassanezi, R.B. 2007. Citrus Huanglongbing: The Pathogen and Its Impact. Plant Health Progress. Online: doi:10.1094/PHP-2007-0906-01-RV.

Interpretive Summary: The article is a review of the present situation of citrus greening disease [huanglongbing (HLB)] in the US and Brazil. Citrus greening is known to be the most severe and destructive of all diseases of citrus. It was discovered in southeast Florida in 2005 and in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2004. If left unchecked, it would eventually spread throughout Florida and Sao Paulo and destroy the commercial and residential citrus in both and potentially spread to other citrus producing regions in the western hemisphere. To date no adequate control strategy has been devised anywhere in the world where the disease exists. The disease is transmitted by a widely distributed insect vector and highly contagious. Discussed in the article are an overview of the history, plus detailed information on distribution, disease symptoms, pathogen types, identification, diagnosis, insect vector and human transmission, epidemiology, yield and quality losses, disease control strategies including biological control alternatives, chemical control, and insect vector control strategies. The article is uniques in that it focuses on epidemiology and what is known about disease increase and spread. Future prognosis for the US and Brazilian citrus industries is discussed.

Technical Abstract: The article is a detailed review of the present status of huanglongbing (HLB) in the US and Brazil. HLB is known to be the most severe and destructive of all diseases of citrus greatly affecting yield and quality, and leads to tree death. It also has severe regulatory and quarantine implications affecting citrus nursery industries, and marketing. It was discovered in southeast Florida south of Miami in 2005 and in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil near Araraquara in 2004. If left unchecked, epidemics would eventually spread throughout Florida and Sao Paulo and destroy the commercial and residential citrus in both and potentially could be introduced and spread to other citrus producing regions in the western hemisphere. To date no adequate control strategy has been devised anywhere in the world where the disease exists. The disease is transmitted by a widely distributed insect vector that presently exists in both Florida and Texas. The causal pathogen is easily and effectively transmitted by the psyllid insect vector and thus highly contagious. Discussed in the article are an overview of the history, plus detailed information on distribution, disease symptoms, pathogen types, identification, diagnosis, insect vector and human transmission, epidemiology, yield and quality losses, disease control strategies including biological control alternatives, chemical control, and insect vector control strategies. The article is uniques in that it focuses on epidemiology and what is known about disease increase and spread. Future prognosis for the US and Brazilian citrus industries is discussed.

Last Modified: 4/20/2014
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