Submitted to: Journal of Insect Physiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 27, 2012
Publication Date: May 16, 2012
Citation: Chaimanee, V., Chantawannakul, P., Chen, Y., Evans, J.D., Pettis, J.S. 2012. Differential expression of immune genes of adult honey bee (Apis mellifera) after inoculated by Nosema ceranae. Journal of Insect Physiology. 58(8):1090-1095. Interpretive Summary: Nosema ceranae is a parasite that affects adult honey bees at an individual and colony level. This study measured expression levels of immunity genes when inoculated with ceranae. The results showed a significant down-regulation of four of the genes three and six days after inoculation. Therefore, in this study we reaffirmed that N. ceranae infection induces host immune system response.
Technical Abstract: Nosema ceranae is a microsporidium parasite infecting adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) and is known to have affects at both the individual and colony level. In this study, the expression levels were measured for four antimicrobial peptide encoding genes that are associated with bee humoral immunity (defensin, abaecin, apidaecin, and hymenoptaecin), eater gene which is a transmembrane protein involved cellular immunity and the gene encoding female-specific protein (vitellogenin) in honey bees when inoculated by N. ceranae. The results showed that four of these genes, defensin, abaecin, apidaecin and hymenoptaecin were significantly down-regulated 3 and 6 days after inoculations. Additionally, antimicrobial peptide expressions did not significantly differ between control and inoculated bees after 12 days post inoculation. Moreover, our results revealed that the mRNA levels of eater and vitellogenin did not differ significantly following N. ceranae inoculation. Therefore, in this study we reaffirmed that N. ceranae infection induces host immunosuppression.