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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera

item Gibbs, Richard - BAYLOR, HOUSTON, TX
item Weinstock, George - BAYLOR, HOUSTON, TX
item Evans, Jay
item Maleszka, Ryszard - AUSTRALIAN NAT. UNIV
item Robertson, Hugh - DEP ENT. URBANA, IL
item Robinson, Gene - DEP ENT. URBANA, IL
item Weaver, Daniel - BEE POWER, NAVASOTA, TX
item Worley, Kim - BAYLOR, HOUSTON, TX
item Beye, Martin - DUESSELDORF, GERMANY
item Bork, Peer - EURO MOLEC. BIO, GERMANY
item Elsik, Christine - TEXAS A&M, COLLEGE ST. TX
item Hartfelder, Klaus - RIBEIRAO PRETO, BRAZIL
item Hunt, Greg - PURDUE, W. LAFAYETTE, IN
item Zdobnov, Evgeny - EURO MOLEC. BIO, GERMANY
item Amdam, Gro - ARIZONA STATE, TEMPE, AZ
item Bitondi, Marcia - RIBEIRAO PRETO, BRAZIL
item Collins, Anita
item Cristino, Alexandre - SAO PAULO, BRAZIL
item Lafforff, H. Michael - HALLE-WITTENBERG, GERMANY
item Lobo, Carlos - RIBEIRAO PRETO, BRAZIL
item Nunes, Francis - RIBEIRAO PRETO, BRAZIL
item Simoes, Zila - RIBEIRAO PRETO, BRAZIL
item Wheeler, Diana - DEPT. ENT. TUCSON, AZ
item Hackett, Kevin
item Aronstein, Katherine
item Lopez, Dawn
item DeCanini, Laura
item Chen, Yanping
item Sakazume, Naoko - RIKEN, YOKOHAMA JAPAN
item Sasaki, Daisuke - RIKEN, YOKOHAMA JAPAN
item Tagami, Michihira - RIKEN, YOKOHAMA JAPAN
item Albert, Stefan - INST. FUR MED., GERMANY
item Baggerman, Geert - LAB DEV. PHYS., BELGIUM
item Beggs, Kyle - ZOOLOGY DEP., NEW ZEALAND
item Bloch, Guy - HEBREW UNV. ISRAEL
item Cazzamali, Giuseppe - INST BIO., COPHGN DENMARK
item Drapeau, Mark - DEP BIO. NEW YORK, NY
item Eisenhardt, Dorothea - FREE UN. BERLIN GERMANY
item Emore, Christine - PURDUE, W LAFAYEET, IN
item Ewing, Michael - UN. ILL., URBANA, IL
item Foret, Sylvain - AUST. NAT. UN., AUSTRALIA
item Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis - UNIV. COPENHAGEN, DENMARK
item Hauser, Frank - UNIV. COPENHAGEN, DENMARK
item Hummon, Amanda - UN. OF IL, URBANA, IL
item Huybrechts, Jurgen - DEV. PHYS. LEUVEN BELGIUM
item Jones, Andrew - MRC FUNC. GENET. OXFORD
item Kaplan, Noam - HEBREW UNV. JERUSALEM IS
item Kucharski, Robert - AUST. NAT. UN., AUSTRALIA
item Leboulle, Gerard - FREE UN. BERLIN, GERMANY
item Linial, Michal - HEBREW UNV. JERUSALEM, IS
item Littleton, Troy - MIT, CAMBRIDGE, MA
item Mercer, Alison - ZOLOGY UN. NEW ZEALAND
item Richmand, Timothy - UN. ILL., URBANA, IL
item Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra - ANIMAL SCI. URBANA, IL
item Rubin, Elad - HEBREW UNV., JERUSALEM IS
item Sattelle, David - MRC FUNC. GENET., OXFORD
item Schlipalius, David - PURDUE UNV., W LAF. IN
item Schoofs, Liliane - LAB DEV. PHYS., BELGIUM
item Sweedler, Jonathan - UNV. IL, URBANA, IL
item Verleyen, Peter - LAB DEV. PHYS., BELGIUM
item Vierstraete, Evy - LAB DEV. PHYS., BELGIUM
item Williams, Gabrielle - BAYLOR COLLEGE, HSTN, TX
item Williamson, Michael - BIO., COPENHAGEN DENMARK
item Ament, Seth - NEURO PROGRAM, UNIV. IL
item Brown, Susan - KS ST. UNV., KANSAS
item Corona, Miquel - UNV. IL, URBANA, IL
item Dearden, Peter - EVO & DEV. OTAGO N ZEALAN
item Dunn, Augustine - UNIV. GA, ATHENS, GA
item Elekonich, Michelle - UNV NEV. LAS VEGAS
item Fahrbach, Susan - WAKE FOREST., WIN-SAL, NC
item Fujiyuki, Tomoko - UNIV GRA SCH SCI, JAPAN
item Gattermeier, Irene - DUESSELDORF, GERMANY
item Gempe, Tanja - DUESSELDORF, GERMANY
item Hasselmann, Martin - DUESSELDORF, GERMANY
item Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko - NAGOYA UNIV, JAPAN
item Kage, Eriko - UNIV GSS, TOKYO, JAPAN
item Kamikouchi, Azusa - UNIV GSS, TOKYO, JAPAN
item Kubo, Takeo - UNIV GSS, TOKYO, JAPAN
item Kunieda, Takekazu - UNIV GSS, TOKYO, JAPAN
item Lorenzen, Marce
item Milshina, Natalia - A&M UNIV, CLG ST., TEXAS
item Morioka, Mizue - UNIV GSS, TOKYO, JAPAN
item Mougel, Florence - GIF-SUR-YVETTE FRANCE
item Ohashi, Kazuaki - UNIV GSS, TOKYO, JAPAN
item Overbeek, Ross - FLWSHP FOR INT. GEN, IL
item Page, Robert - ARIZONA ST. UNIV. AZ
item Ross, Christian - UNIV NEVADA LAS VEGAS
item Schioett, Morten - DUESSELDORF, GERMANY
item Shippy, Teresa - KANSAS ST. UNIV
item Takeuchi, Hideaki - UNIV, GSS, TOKYO, JAPAN
item Toth, Amy - UNI. IL, URBANA, IL
item Velarde, Rodrigo - UNI. IL, URBANA, IL
item Willis, Judith - UNIV GA, ATHENS, GA
item Wilson, Megan - UNIV. OTAGO NEW ZEALAND
item Berenbaum, May - UNI. IL, URBANA, IL
item Cohen, Mira - HEBREW UN. JERSLM, ISRAEL
item Letunic, Ivica - BIO LAB, HEIDLBRG, GERMNY

Submitted to: Nature
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 1, 2006
Publication Date: October 26, 2006
Citation: Gibbs, R.A., Weinstock, G.M., Evans, J.D., Maleszka, R., Robertson, H.M., Robinson, G.E., Weaver, D.B., Worley, K.C., Beye, M., Bork, P., Elsik, C.G., Hartfelder, K., Hunt, G.J., Zdobnov, E.M., Amdam, G.V., Bitondi, M.M., Collins, A.M., Cristino, A.S., Lafforff, H.G., Lobo, C.H., Moritz, R.F., Nunes, F.M., Simoes, Z.L., Wheeler, D., Hackett, K.J., Aronstein, K.A., Lopez, D.L., Decanini, L.I., Chen, Y., Sakazume, N., Sasaki, D., Tagami, M., Albert, S., Baggerman, G., Beggs, K.T., Bloch, G., Cazzamali, G., Drapeau, M.D., Eisenhardt, D., Emore, C., Ewing, M.A., Foret, S., Grimmelikhuijzen, C.U., Hauser, F., Hummon, A.B., Huybrechts, J., Jones, A.K., Kaplan, N., Kucharski, R., Leboulle, G., Linial, M., Littleton, T.J., Mercer, A.R., Richmand, T.A., Rodriguez-Zas, S.L., Rubin, E.B., Sattelle, D.B., Schlipalius, D., Schoofs, L., Sweedler, J.V., Verleyen, P., Vierstraete, E., Williams, G., Williamson, M.R., Ament, S.A., Brown, S.J., Corona, M., Dearden, P.K., Dunn, A.W., Elekonich, M.M., Fahrbach, S.E., Fujiyuki, T., Gattermeier, I., Gempe, T., Hasselmann, M., Kadowaki, T., Kage, E., Kamikouchi, A., Kubo, T., Kunieda, T., Lorenzen, M.D., Milshina, N.V., Morioka, M., Mougel, F., Ohashi, K., Overbeek, R., Page, R.E., Ross, C.A., Schioett, M., Shippy, T., Takeuchi, H., Toth, A.L., Velarde, R., Willis, J.H., Wilson, M.J., Berenbaum, M.R., Cohen, M., Gordon, K.H., Letunic, I. et al. 2006. Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Nature. 443:931-949.

Interpretive Summary: Honey bees are a key species for agriculture, providing pollination services, honey, and other hive products worldwide with a yearly economic impact in the tens of billions of dollars. Genetic tools have long been used in honey bees to understand nutrition, disease resistance, behavior, and the healthy development of queens, workers, and males. This project describes the single largest improvement of honey bee genetic tools to date, the sequencing and description of the entire honey bee genome. This characterization provides thousands of genetic ‘markers’ that will help bee breeders and researchers improve existing stock. Perhaps more importantly, this genome project has provided precise details into the genetic traits of healthy bees, allowing a more complete ‘veterinary’ approach to bee health. Given the main sponsors for the project (the U.S. National Institutes of Health and USDA-ARS), it is expected that heightened interest and opportunities in honey bee genetics will help improve human health, as well as the health of bees and other agricultural species. Tangible results that will help researchers, regulatory agencies, and beekeepers in the short term include a full delineation between European and Africanized bees, a toolkit of all honey bee immune genes, and new ways to identify the impacts of environmental stress on honey bee behavior and health. These insights are reported in this paper and in a set of topical companion papers.

Technical Abstract: We report the genome sequence of a highly social insect, the honey bee, Apis mellifera, a key model for social behavior as well as an essential component of global ecology through pollination activities. The genome is analyzed primarily from two perspectives: broad comparative analyses, with special reference to other insect genomes, and interpretation, whenever possible, of the honey bee genome to sociality. We expect the sequence of the honey bee genome will enhance discovery in diverse areas including allergic disease, development, gerontology, infectious disease, mental illness, neuroscience, parasitology, social behavior, and venom toxicology, and improve human nutrition by enabling enhanced pollination of food plants.

Last Modified: 8/25/2016
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