Submitted to: Foods & Food Ingredients Journal of Japan
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 6, 2006
Publication Date: March 15, 2005
Citation: Yadav, M.P., Johnston, D., Hicks, K.B., Nothnagel, E.A. 2006. The role of lipid and protein components in the emulsification properties of gum arabic and corn fiber gum. Foods & Food Ingredients Journal of Japan. V.211, No. 3.p.243-254. Interpretive Summary: It is well known that gum Arabic is a very good flavor stabilizer in soft drinks, but the chemical group responsible for this property is not well studied. Our studies show that a few percent of the total gum Arabic population which contain lipids have a better flavor stabilizing capacity than the rest of the population. When these lipid groups are cut, they lose their flavor holding capacity, showing the importance of lipid in flavor stabilization. Corn fiber gum (CFG), produced from corn fiber, which is a low value by-product of corn milling has also a very good flavor holding capacity. In this case it is determined that protein is key to its excellent flavor stabilizing property. CFGs with higher protein content have a higher flavor binding capacity in soft drinks. These results will be valuable for the soft drink industries, which are looking for the active flavor stabilizing group in gum Arabic and/or CFG. They may now be able to chemically convert the major inactive population into active flavor stabilizers and make better use of all gum Arabic and CFG.
Technical Abstract: Evidence regarding the molecular structural basis of the emulsifying activity of gum arabic is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on tests of the hypothesis that some of the arabinogalactan proteins in gum arabic contain intact glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchors that assist in binding to the surface of oil droplets and thereby contribute to the stabilization of dilute oil-in-water emulsions. Corn fiber gum, in which the proportion of protein content is similar to that of gum arabic, is evaluated as an alternative to gum arabic for use in dilute oil-in-water emulsions.