|Diers, Jeffrey - UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI|
|Bowling, John - UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI|
|Feldhaus, Amanda - UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI|
|Pennaka, Hari - UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI|
|Wahyuono, Subagus - GADJAH MADA UNIVERSITY|
|Hamann, Mark - UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI|
Submitted to: Marine Biotechnology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 2, 2005
Publication Date: March 3, 2006
Citation: Diers, J.A., Bowling, J.J., Feldhaus, A.J., Pennaka, H.K., Duke, S.O., Wahyuono, S., Hamann, M.T. 2006. Zebra Mussel Antifouling Activity of the Marine Natural Products Aaptamine and Analogs. Marine Biotechnology. 8:366-372. Interpretive Summary: Several compounds and their derivatives from a marine sponge were evaluated for their ability to prevent the zebra mussel from adhering to surfaces (antifouling activity). Three of the compounds were active at low concentrations. These compounds were not toxic to an aquatic plant at concentrations that were effective as an antifoulant. This suggests that they could be environmentally sound antifouling compounds.
Technical Abstract: Several aaptamine derivatives were selected as potential zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) antifoulants due to the noteworthy absence of fouling observed on Aaptos sponges. Sponges of the Genus Aaptos collected in Mando, Indonesia, consistently produce aaptamine-type alkaloids. To date, aaptamine and its derivatives have not been carefully evaluated for their antifoulant properties. Structure-activity relationship studies were conducted using eight aaptamine derivatives in a zebra mussel antifouling assay. From these data, three analogs have shown significant antifouling activity against zebra mussel attachment. Aaptamine, isoaaptamine, and the demethylated aaptamine compounds used in the zebra mussel assay produced EC50 values of 24.2, 11.6, and 18.6 uM, respectively. Field exposure studies with reef fish have shown aaptamine is also an antifeedant. Additionally, neither aaptamine nor isoaaptamine produced a phytotoxic response towards a non-target organism, Lemna pausicostata, in a seven-day exposure. Alkylated aaptamine products designed for improved hydrophobicity were antifoulant but also toxic in the zebra mussel assay. The use of these aaptamine derivatives from Aaptos sp. as environmentally benign antifouling alternatives to metal-based paints and preservatives is significant, not only as a potential control of fouling organisms, but also to highlight the ecological importance of these and similar biochemical defenses.