Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: January 3, 2006
Publication Date: August 10, 2006
Citation: Richards, G.P. 2006. Shellfish-associated viral disease outbreaks. Book Chapter. In Viruses in Foods, (S.M. Goyal, Editor), Springer, New York. pp. 223-238. Technical Abstract: Enteric viruses include a broad array of human pathogens which enter the host via the fecal-oral route. The enteric viruses include the caliciviruses, which are broken down into the noroviruses and the sapoviruses; picornaviruses, particularly hepatitis A virus, the Aichi virus, and poliovirus; hepatitis E virus; astroviruses; rotaviruses; enteric adenoviruses; toroviruses; and picobirnaviruses. The most frequently reported foodborne outbreaks are from the noroviruses, formerly designated the agent of winter vomiting disease, Norwalk-like viruses, and small round structured viruses. Hepatitis A virus is also reported as a frequent cause of foodborne illness. This chapter highlights specific, shellfish-related outbreaks of enteric virus illness in countries around the globe and the circumstances surrounding the outbreaks. Disease prevention will be discussed and includes the need for enhanced monitoring and enforcement of regulations, improved analytical techniques, consideration of virus inactivation when designing sewage treatment plants, better disease reporting and epidemiological follow-up, new processing strategies, and improved education and hygienic practices.