Submitted to: Clinical Microbiological Reviews
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: December 29, 2003
Publication Date: April 1, 2004
Citation: GRUBMAN, M.J., BAXT, B. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE. Clinical Microbiological Reviews. 2004.V17, No 2: 465-493. Technical Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the "re-emergence" of FMD in developed countries that had been disease-free for many years and the effect this has had on disease control strategies. The etiologic agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is examined in detail at the genetic, structural, and biochemical levels, and in terms of its antigenic diversity. The virus replication cycle including virus-receptor interactions as well as unique aspects of virus translation and shut-off of host macromolecular synthesis are discussed. This information has been the basis for the development of improved protocols to rapidly identify disease outbreaks, to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, and to begin to identify and test novel vaccine candidates. Furthermore, this knowledge, coupled with the ability to manipulate FMDV genomes at the molecular level, has provided the framework for examination of disease pathogenesis and the development of a more complete understanding of virus and host factors involved.