Submitted to: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 13, 2002
Publication Date: December 13, 2003
Citation: Miller, G.L., Miller, D.R. 2003. Invasive soft scales (hemiptera: coccidae) and their threat to u.s. agriculture. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.105:832-846 Interpretive Summary: Soft-scale insects are pests that feed on many of the world's agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants. This paper identifies those pest species that are established in the United States or those species which pose a substantial threat to agriculture of the United States. This paper also identifies principle host plants which could be affected, notable references describing pest or threat status, date of establishment in the U.S. if applicable, and probable zoogeographic origin of the insect. This information will be of use to insect identifiers and regulatory personnel working in ports.
Technical Abstract: A compilation of 146 species of soft scale insects that are either pests or represent a threat to United States agriculture is provided. Included for each species, where applicable, is reference to: origin and date of introduction; establishment in the United States; pest or threat status In the United States along with a validation citation; principle hosts; and biogeographical region of origin. Predictions are made on the next likely species of soft scale to invade the U.S.