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Research Project: Improvement and Maintenance of Peanuts, Peanut Products and Related Peanut Product Flavor, Shelf Life, Functional Characteristics

Location: Food Science and Market Quality and Handling Research Unit

Title: Profiling seventeen cultivars of roasted peanuts by descriptive sensory and flavor volatile analysis

item Dean, Lisa
item CAMPBELL, REBECCA - University Of Georgia
item STONER-HARRIS, TAIJA - University Of Georgia
item HUNG, YEN-CON - University Of Georgia
item Hendrix, Keith
item ADHIKARI, KOUSHIK - University Of Georgia

Submitted to: Measurement: Food
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/6/2023
Publication Date: 9/7/2023
Citation: Dean, L.L., Campbell, R., Stoner-Harris, T., Hung, Y., Hendrix, K., Adhikari, K. 2023. Profiling seventeen cultivars of roasted peanuts by descriptive sensory and flavor volatile analysis. Measurement: Food. 11:100105.

Interpretive Summary: A range of different peanut varieties are grown in the USA for consumer products. The varieties are chosen to give the best crop yield for the growing area. All of the samples examined in the study were specifically grown for the research in Southeast Georgia, USA. This study examined the flavor of 17 of the varieties, 12 of which were of the runner type usually used to make peanut butter and 5 were of the Virginia type which are usually consumed as "in shells". "In shells are peanuts roasted in the shell for the consumer to shell when eaten. The study examine the volatile compounds that are created when peanuts are roasted using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the roasted peanuts using a trained panel with a standard list of defined flavor attributes specifically written for roasted peanuts. The research found that certain cultivars developed for the Georgia-North Florida growing regions had the highest roast flavor intensities of the runner types. Of the Virginia types, the cultivars with fatty acid contents highest in oleic acid roasted darker. A number of the volatile compounds were found to correspond with the different flavor descriptors using principal component analysis. This information will provide plant breeders with a guide to possible genetic linkages for roasted peanut flavor formation.

Technical Abstract: The main objective of the study was to profile the aroma and flavor of 17 commercially available peanut cultivars through descriptive sensory analysis and instrumental measurements. Twelve runner (ten high-oleic varieties) cultivars, and five virginia (two high-oleic varieties) cultivars were studied. The peanut samples were roasted to medium roast levels before being subjected to proximate analysis, descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and fatty acid analysis. In general, the runners showed higher intensities of typical roasted flavors and related aroma volatiles compared to the virginia cultivars. TUFRunner™ ‘511', TUFRunner™ ‘727', FloRun™ ‘331', and Florida-07 (high-oleic runner cultivars) were characterized by higher intensities of roasted flavors (descriptive) and aroma volatiles (pyrazines and aromatic aldehydes) compared to the rest of the runner and virginia cultivars. Two high-oleic virginia cultivars, Georgia 11 J and Bailey II were characterized darker roast-type descriptors and aroma volatiles. Although the principal components analysis (PCA) showed similar trends, it was evident that the relationship between roasted flavors (descriptive) and aroma volatiles (pyrazines and aromatic aldehydes) was not very strong. More in-depth studies are required to understand the roasted flavor generation in these commercial peanut cultivars under various roasting conditions.