|Hansen, James D|
|Heidt, Mildred - Millie|
Submitted to: Pest Management Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2000
Publication Date: 2/16/2000
Citation: Hansen, J.D., Sell, C.R., Leesch, J.G., Moffitt, H.R., Albano, D.J., Hartsell, P.L., Tebbets, J.C., Heidt, M.L. 2000. Residues in apples and sweet cherries after methyl bromide fumigation. Pest Management Science. 56:555-559.
Interpretive Summary: The United States is a major exporter of deciduous fruits, such as sweet cherries and apples. To prevent possible establishment of the codling moth in their country, Japan requires that apples and sweet cherries from the United States be fumigated with methyl bromide. To demonstrate safety after fumigation, cultivars of apples and sweet cherries were analyzed for organic and inorganic bromide residues. Considering the time spent in storage and transoceanic shipment, bromide levels were acceptable for all cultivars tested. Thus, fumigated fruits exported to Japan are safe for human consumption.
Technical Abstract: Methyl bromide fumigations are used to treat apples and sweet cherries before export to Japan. In order to expand the market, organic and inorganic residue analyses were conducted on additional cultivars as part of the approval process. Five apple cultivars (Braeburn, Fuji, Gala, Jonagold, and Granny Smith) were fumigated at 40 g/m3 for two hours at 10 deg C, and six sweet cherry cultivars (Brooks, Garnet, Lapin, Rainier, Sweetheart, and Tulare) were fumigated for 2 h with 64 g/m3 at 6 deg C, 48 g/m3 at 12 deg C, 40 g/m3 at 17 deg C, and 32 g/m3 at 22 deg C. Three replicates of fruit from each fumigation were analyzed for organic and inorganic bromide residues periodically with time. Organic bromide residues for both apples and cherries were the highest immediately after fumigation, but rapidly declined so that only Braeburn had residues greater than 8 ppb after 13 d and, except for Lapin, all cherries were less than 1 ppb after 7 d. Average inorganic bromide residues were between 3.3 and 4.9 ppm among apple cultivars, and between 3.7 and 8.0 ppm among cherries cultivars.