Submitted to: American Bee Journal
Publication Type: Popular Publication
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/14/1999
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: An Interpretive Summary is not required for a Popular Article.
Technical Abstract: There has been quite a bit of discussion over the reasons some U.S. beekeepers have seen varroa in their operations become resistant to Apistan. Resistance has been defined by Graves as "the ability in insect and mite strains to withstand exposure to dosages that exceed that of a normal susceptible population - such ability being inherited by subsequent generations of the strain". Questions dealing with why resistance developed, how quickly it developed, and which management tactics may have contributed to increasing resistance are currently being debated. Resistance in a pest can come about by increased detoxification activity within the pest, e.g., more or better enzymes that break down the pesticide to a harmless form. Resistance can also come about by changes in the nerve target sight within the pest, e.g., the site on the nerve where the pesticide is supposed to fit to cause death is altered in such a way as to prevent pesticide from acting. In this article we will attempt to explain the reasons behind resistance management texts, and offer some practical strategies to manage resistance.