Submitted to: Journal of Teratogenesis Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis (TCM)
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/23/1998
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Commercial products and co-products of agricultural crop plants may be reliable sources of functional chemicals for food supplements. An extract prepared from material left over from the processing of soybeans has been shown to be a potent protector against cell damage from known carcinogens. We have separated this extract into chemically-defined fractions and determined their ability to protect model animal cell systems from damage by potent carcinogens. Fraction PCC 70% contained the soy isoflavones, two of which suppressed damage in the model system. One isoflavone, however, actually enhanced the damage by the carcinogen. Fraction PCC 100%, which did not contain any isoflavones, provided the greatest protection from the carcinogen in the model system. This indicates that commercial soybean processing products may be a source of anti-cancer (chemo-protective) functional chemicals and will be of benefit to consumers and the soy industry.
Technical Abstract: Commercial products of agronomic crop plants may become a reliable and inexpensive source of phytonutrients such as antimutagenic food supplements. We previously demonstrated that PCC, an ethanol extract of a commercial soybean processing byproduct, was able to repress induced genomic DNA damage, whole cell clastogenicity, and point mutation in mammalian cells. In this paper, we separated PCC into a series of chemically defined fractions and determined their ability to repress induced mutagenic damage in Chinese hamster lung cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, and human lymphocytes. Fraction PCC70 (PCC 70% methanol eluate) contained the flavonoids from PCC and daidzin and genistin repressed 2-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene (2AAAF)-induced DNA damage measured with single cell gel electrophoresis. Genistein, however, enhanced the genotoxic impact of 2AAAF. Fraction PCC100 (PCC 100% methanol eluate) had the greatest level of antigenotoxic activity against 2AAAF in CHO cells and repressed the genotoxic capacity of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-3- methylimidazo-(4,5-f)quinoline (IQ) in human lymphocytes. These data indicate that commercial soybean products and byproducts may be a source of chemoprotective food additives.