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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Tifton, Georgia » Crop Protection and Management Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #95577

Title: BAHIAGRASS, CORN, COTTON ROTATIONS, AND PESTICIDES FOR MANAGING NEMATODES, DISEASES, AND INSECTS ON PEANUT.

Author
item Johnson, Alva
item MINTON, N
item BRENNEMAN, T
item Burton, Glenn
item CULBREATH, A
item GASCHO, G
item BAKER, S

Submitted to: Journal of Nematology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/3/1999
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Root-knot nematodes, insects, and soilborne fungal diseases cause significant losses in yield and quality in peanuts in the southeastern United States each year. This 6-year (1991-1996) experiment was designed to determine the effects of cropping systems and selected pesticides on nematodes, insects, soilborne fungal diseases, and yield of peanuts. Cropping systems of peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut were whole-plots. Aldicarb, flutolanil, aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated control were sub-plots. Pod and root damage by root-knot nematodes was consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated plots in continuous peanut than in the other cropping sequences. Stem rot and Rhizoctonia limb rot were more severe in the peanut monoculture than in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, or cotton. Flutolanil alone or combined with aldicarb suppressed southern stem rot and Rhizoctonia limb rot compared with aldicarb-treated and untreated plots. Peanut pod yields were highest (4,186 kg/ha) from aldicarb + flutolanil-treated plots, intermediate (3,627 kg/ha and 3,426 kg/ha) from aldicarb- and flutolanil- treated plots, and lowest (3,056 kg/ha) from untreated plots. Yields of peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, and cotton were 3,865 kg/ha, 3,739 kg/ha, and 3,785 kg/ha, respectively, compared with 2,907 kg/ha in continuous peanut. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits and improved yield from using two widely grown agronomic crops (corn and cotton) with a pasture crop (bahiagrass) in rotations with peanut and soil chemical treatments to manage root-knot nematodes and other pathogens and pests.

Technical Abstract: Florunner peanut was grown after 2 years of Tifton 9 bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut as whole-plots. Pesticide treatments aldicarb (3.4 kg a.i./ha), flutolanil (1.7 kg a.i./ha), aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated control were sub-plots. Number of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices of peanut tat harvest were consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated plots. Percentages of peanut leaflets damaged by thrips and leafhoppers were consistently greater in flutolanil-treated and untreated plots than in plots treated with aldicarb or aldicarb + flutolanil but not affected by cropping sequences. Incidence of southern stem rot was moderate to high for all chemical treatments except those that included flutolanil. Stem rot loci were low in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, intermediate following 2 years of corn or cotton, and highest in continuous peanut. Rhizoctonia limb rot was more severe in the peanut monoculture than in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, or cotton. Flutolanil alone or combined with aldicarb suppressed limb rot compared with aldicarb- treated and untreated plots. Peanut pod yields were 4,186 kg/ha from aldicarb + flutolanil-treated plots, 3,627 kg/ha from aldicarb-treated plots, 3,426 kg/ha from flutolanil-treated plots, and 3,056 kg/ha from untreated plots. Yields of peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, and cotton were 29% to 33% higher than yield of monocultured peanut.