Submitted to: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/6/1998
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The bison industry is one of the fastest growing alternative agriculture enterprises. Information on the nutrient content of various cuts of bison meat is limited. Analysis of individual muscles from 100 fed bison from different geographic regions of the United States and Canada indicate that bison meat is a high nutrient dense food. The proportion of protein, minerals and vitamins are high relative to the energy content of the meat. Bison meat is also relatively low in cholesterol when compared with meat from other sources. This information will be used to comply with demands for nutrient labeling of products. Knowing the nutrient composition of bison will help consumers and dietitians plan healthy meals using this product.
Technical Abstract: Individual muscles from the top round, sirloin, ribeye, and clod were obtained from 100 fed bison (bulls 24-28 months) from various geographic areas of the United States and Canada. Animals were fed concentrate rations plus hay for at least 120 days prior to slaughter. Nutrient parameters obtained were moisture, protein, fat, cholesterol, energy, ten minerals and six vitamins. The four muscles averaged 74.6% moisture, 21.7% protein, 2.1% fat, and 1.2% mineral, with an energy value of 143 kcal/100 g. Cholesterol content averaged 66 mg/100 g. With the exception of calcium (4.9 mg/100 g), bison meat seems to have adequate amounts of the minerals analyzed. It contains 3 mg/100 g of iron and 53 mg/100 g of sodium. Vitamin A averaged 0.00079 mg/100 g while alpha and gamma tocopherol content was 0.047 and 0.013 mg/100 g, respectively. No vitamin C was detected. Thiamin averaged 0.045 mg/100 g and vitamin B-6 content was 0.25 mg/100 g. Vitamin B-12 content of bison was 2.13 mcg/100g. Bison meat is a high nutrient-dense food because of the proportion of protein, fat, minerals, and vitamins relative to its energy content.