Submitted to: National Congress Mexican Society for Soil Science
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/10/1997
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Soil erosion is a worldwide environmental problem that affects the sustainability of agriculture. This process of detachment and transport of particles is related to the soil surface condition. Soil dispersion causes surface sealing which in turn reduces water infiltration. The low ionic strength of rainwater contributes to the low soil permeability by increasing soil particles dispersion. The degree of dispersion can be related to the effect of the electrical double layer since the repulsive forces between clays increase as the ionic strength decreases and the hydrated ionic radius increases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of gypsum as a source of Ca*2+ and electrolytes in erosion, runoff and infiltration in agricultural soils with different mineralogy from Mexico (MEX) and Indiana (USA). The soils were packed and subjected to 75 mm of simulated rainfall for one hour. Surface application of gypsum reduced sediment concentration and increased final infiltration rate. The results demonstrated that soil dispersion caused by the low electrolyte concentration and mechanical action of rainwater can be minimized by applying a source of electrolytes and Ca*2+ to the soil system in order to promote flocculation and to increase aggregate stability.