Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/16/1998
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Sap beetles of the genus Carpophilus infest a wide variety of crops and commodities throughout the world, and there is a need for safer and more effective methods for minimizing the damage caused by these pests. One recent approach in pest management has been to identify insect pheromones and to develop them as tools, and this report reviews the efforts along these lines for the Carpophilus sap beetles. Male-produced aggregation pheromones, to which both sexes respond, were identified from nine Carpophilus species. All consist of alkyl-branched, conjugated triene or tetraene hydrocarbons, all of which were novel compounds. Chemical isolation, properties, and synthesis are discussed. The beetles produce the compounds in a specialized tissue within the abdomen, and a polyketide biosynthesis is described. Wind-tunnel bioassays are described that were used to guide chromatographic pheromone purification in some species, but activity of synthetic pheromones was eventually verified in the field for all nine species. The pheromones are dramatically synergized by volatiles from fermenting food materials. Cross-attraction to some of the pheromones occurred in the field. Trapping parameters such as trap type, trap height, pheromone dose, and longevity of pheromone baits were studied. Practical uses of the pheromones in insect management are discussed.