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Title: EFFECTS OF CROP ROTATION AND ALDICARB ON NORTHERN ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE AND PEANUT POD YIELD

Author
item JACKSON, KENNETH
item Melouk, Hassan
item DAMICONE, JOHN

Submitted to: American Peanut Research and Education Society Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/8/1996
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Summary article; no new research reported; no interpretive summary required.

Technical Abstract: Crop rotation systems were compared at Ft. Cobb, OK, in 1991-94. Systems consisted of continuous cropping of Tamspan 90 peanut (T-90), T- 90/rotational crop (RC)/T-90, and RC/RC/T-90. Rotational crops were grain sorghum (GS), wheat (W), and sudan (S). All 1995 plots were cropped to T- 90, and half (sub-plot) of each treated with aldicarb nematicide (1.7 kg/ha) at planting. Soil samples were taken each year prior to planting an at late season to determine population of northern root-knot nematode. Nematodes were extracted using a modified Christie-Perry method. Plant vigor and severity of galls on peanut roots were also assessed. At the end of the 1993 peanut crop season, continuous peanut nematode populations were significantly higher than in 2-year (not detectable) and 1-year rotations. In 1994, nematode populations increased on peanut to high levels in S/S/T- 90, W/W/T-90, T-90/GS/T-90, and T-90/S/T-90 cropping systems. Low nematode populations were recovered from GS/GS/T-90, T-90/W/T-90, and T-90/T-90/T-9 cropping systems. These nematode populations did not reduce yield in 1994. However, yields were reduced in 1995 since aldicarb treatment significantly (P=0.05) increased pod yields (460 kg/ha), increased plant vigor by 31%, and decreased severity of root galling by 38%. Aldicarb also reduced nematode population in soil by 63%. Results showed grain sorghum was the best rotational crop for root-knot nematode control, although all 3 rotational crops reduced nematode populations. For fields with a history of northern root-knot nematodes, results suggest that increased nematode populations are likely after 1 year of peanut. A rotational crop should be planted or a nematicide applied to avoid yield losses after 1 year of peanut.