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ARS Home » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #63488


item Donelson, John
item Gaines, Charles
item Finney, Patrick

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/30/1995
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: In the US, cakes are usually produced using flour that has been treated with chlorine gas. Some health benefit or economic advantage may be gained from using flour that is not so treated. However compared to untreated flour, chlorine gas makes cake flour more stable during baking, producing larger cakes that have a more tender, delicate characteristic when eaten. Those traditional and expected qualities of cakes made with chlorine treated flour were also developed in cakes made without chlorine treatment, using a formulation and added ingredients. The amount of dried egg white was increased, some of the flour was replaced with wheat starch, and small amounts of xanthan gum and soy lecithin were added. The resulting cakes had size and texture characteristics similar to cakes baked using chlorine treated flour. Cakes produced without chlorine treated flour and with more egg white should be more healthy, benefiting consumers and producers alike.

Technical Abstract: High-ratio white layer cakes are normally formulated using chlorine treated soft wheat flour. That formula was modified to produce cakes made with nonchlorinated flour. Formula modifications included increasing the concentration of dried egg white, replacing 40% of the (nonchlorinated) flour with wheat starch, and adding small amounts of xanthan gum and soy lecithin. Cakes were evaluated for volume, contour, and crumb appearance. In addition, cake crumb was compressed and the resistance to compression and the speed and extent of the return of the crumb height after compression were evaluated as critical features of crumb texture. The formula modifications produced cakes that were equivalent in appearance and texture to those made using chlorinated flour and were superior to those produced with nonchlorinated flour (and no additional formula ingredients). The same formula modifications and nonchlorinated flours were also used to produce three other types of cakes: pound cake, cup cake, and sheet cake. Those modified formulas with nonchlorinated flours also produced cakes which were equal or superior to cakes produced using chlorine treated flour and were superior to cakes produced using nonchlorinated flour and no additional treatment ingredients.