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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #413248

Research Project: Strategies to Reduce Mycotoxin Contamination in Animal Feed and its Effect in Poultry Production Systems

Location: Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research

Title: Effects of soybean meal and wheat bran on immune response and cecal bacterial antimicrobial resistance gene response in broilers

item VELURI, SHRAVANI - University Of Georgia
item SELVARAJ, RAMESH - University Of Georgia
item Shanmugasundaram, Revathi
item Oladeinde, Adelumola - Ade
item LAWRENCE, JODIE - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item Cudnik, Denice
item Zock, Gregory
item OLUKOSI, OLUYINKA - University Of Georgia

Submitted to: European Poultry Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2024
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: N/A

Technical Abstract: A 42-day floor pen trial with 1,200 Cobb 500 broiler chicks was used to study the effect of fibers from soy hull (SH) and wheat bran (WB) in comparison to prebiotics on cecal bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes and immune parameters in Eimeria-challenged broilers. Ten treatments were arranged in a 5 (diets) × 2 (challenge; CH vs. no challenge; NCH) factorial with 6 reps and 20 birds/rep. Diets included 1. high protein soybean meal (HPSBM), 2. HPSBM + prebiotics, 3. HPSBM + WB, 4. low-protein SBM (LPSBM), and 5. LPSBM + xylanase. Soyhulls were added to HPSBM (48% protein) to produce LPSBM (43% protein). All the diets (maize-based) were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On d15, birds in the CH group were challenged with Eimeria oocysts. Cecal samples were collected on d 14 and 21, and high throughput TaqMan PCR was used to determine the abundance of genes associated with commensal and pathogenic bacteria and AMR determinants for tetracycline (e.g., tetL, tetM, and tetB). Spleen and ceca tonsils were used to determine immunological responses on d21. On d14 (prior to the Eimeria challenge), the HPSBM group had higher levels of C. perfringes (P < 0.05), E. coli (P < 0.05), tetM (P < 0.05), and strB (P < 0.05) than birds fed LPSBM. Higher levels of C. perfringes were observed for LPSBM + xylanase than the LPSBM treatment group (P = 0.03). On d21, there was only a significant effect of diet on tetM and strB, where birds receiving HPSBM+ prebiotics had lower levels of tetM and strB (P < 0.05). Splenocyte nitric oxide production was lowest in all NCH birds and HPSBM and HPSBM + WB in the CH group, while NO production was higher for HPSBM + prebiotic, LPSBM + xylanase, with the highest value observed for the LPSBM group. Spleen and ceca tonsil mRNA expression of IL-10 was decreased in NCH birds, but in CH birds, there was an increase (P < 0.05) in IL-10 expression for LPSBM, LPSBM + xylanase, and HPSBM + prebiotics. IL-10 mRNA expression in CH birds was highest for LPSBM, followed by HPSBM + WB (P < 0.05) compared to other diets. In conclusion, prior to the Eimeria challenge, LPSBM diets reduced the levels of AMR genes and enhanced the anti-inflammatory response post-challenge. However, prebiotic supplementation to HPSBM reduced the levels of AMR genes in broilers challenged with cocci. Therefore, LPSBM is advantageous in enhancing the gut health of broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria, dissimilar to the effect of prebiotics addition to HPSBM.