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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #413245

Research Project: Strategies to Reduce Mycotoxin Contamination in Animal Feed and its Effect in Poultry Production Systems

Location: Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research

Title: Salmonella infection in poultry: A review on the pathogen and control strategies

item SYAMILY, SHAJI - University Of Georgia
item SELVARAJ, RAMESH - University Of Georgia
item Shanmugasundaram, Revathi

Submitted to: Microorganisms
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/11/2023
Publication Date: 11/20/2023
Citation: Syamily, S., Selvaraj, R., Shanmugasundaram, R. 2023. Salmonella infection in poultry: A review on the pathogen and control strategies. Microorganisms. 11(11), p. 2814.

Interpretive Summary: Salmonella, a common cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide, poses a significant threat to both public health and the poultry industry. The problem lies in the frequent outbreaks of Salmonella, which not only affect human health but also impact poultry production efficiency and food safety. Current vaccines often fall short in providing comprehensive protection against the various Salmonella serotypes, especially with emerging strains, and sustaining long-term immunity. However, the research community has made advances in addressing this issue. The accomplishment here is the recognition of the need for more potent vaccines capable of cross-protection against multiple Salmonella serotypes. These vaccines should not only cover existing strains but also be effective against new and emerging ones. Additionally, the research highlights the importance of inducing long-term immunity to enhance the overall effectiveness of these preventive measures. The contribution of this accomplishment is significant. It directs attention towards a multi-intervention strategy that not only reduces Salmonella bacterial load in poultry but also prevents contamination during processing.

Technical Abstract: Salmonella is the leading cause of food-borne zoonotic disease worldwide. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes are the primary etiological agents associated with Salmonellosis in poultry. Contaminated poultry eggs and meat products are the major sources of human Salmonella infection. Horizontal and vertical transmission are primary routes of infection in chickens. The principal virulence genes linked to Salmonella pathogenesis in poultry are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2). Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses are involved in defense against Salmonella invasion in poultry. Vaccination of chickens and supplementation of feed additives like prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, synbiotics, and bacteriophages are currently being used to mitigate Salmonella load in poultry. Despite the existence of various control measures, there is still a need for a broad, safe, and well-defined strategy that can confer long-term protection from Salmonella in poultry flocks. This review examines the current knowledge on etiology, transmission, cell wall structure, nomenclature, pathogenesis, immune response, and efficacy of preventative approaches of Salmonella.