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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BARC) » Beltsville Agricultural Research Center » Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #412653

Research Project: Plant-associated Nematode Management and Systematics and USDA Nematode Collection Curation

Location: Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory

Title: The origin, deployment, and evolution of a plant-parasitic nematode effectorome

item MOLLOY, BETH - University Of Cambridge
item SHI, DIO - University Of Cambridge
item LONG, JONATHAN - University Of Cambridge
item PELLEGRIN, CLEMENT - University Of Cambridge
item SENATORI, BEATRICE - University Of Cambridge
item Vieira, Paulo
item THORPE, PETER - University Of Dundee
item DAMM, ANIKA - University Of Cambridge
item AHMAD, MARIAM - University Of Cambridge
item EVES-VAN DEN AKKER, SEBASTIAN - University Of Cambridge
item DEREVNINA, LIDA - University Of Cambridge
item WEI, SIYUAN - University Of Cambridge
item SPERLING, ALEXIS - University Of Cambridge
item ESTEVEZ, ESTEFANY - University Of Cambridge
item BRUTY, SAMUAL - University Of Cambridge
item HUGO, VICTOR - University Of Cambridge
item KRANSE, OLAF - University Of Cambridge
item MAIER, TOM - Iowa State University
item BAUM, THOMAS - Iowa State University

Submitted to: PLoS Pathogens
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/7/2024
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are devastating crop parasites that present a considerable threat to global food security with collective annual damage estimated at over 100 billion dollars worldwide. The most damaging are those capable of forming long-term relationships with their host plant–namely, the cyst (genera Heterodera and Globodera) and root-knot nematodes (genus Meloidogyne). These species can alter their plant hosts by creating a feeding site from which they get their nutrition. Scientists do not yet have a full understanding of this process. In this study, genes potentially contributing to this process were identified by RNA sequencing. This work will benefit scientists engaged in research on the disease process and in developing methods for controlling these devastating plant pests.

Technical Abstract: During parasitism, plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) secrete effectors-produced in two sets of pharyngeal gland cells into the host plant. These effectors elicit profound changes in host biology to suppress immunity and establish a unique feeding organ from which the nematode draws nutrition. Despite the importance of nematode effectors in parasitism, the PPN effector repertoire remains undefined. To address this, we take advantage of recent techniques for gland cell isolation and transcriptional analysis to define a stringent annotation of putative effectors for the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii at three key life-stages. We define 659 effector gene loci: 293 ‘known’ high-confidence homologs of plant-parasitic nematode effectors, and 366 ‘novel’ effectors with high gland cell expression. In doing so we define a comprehensive ‘effectorome’ of a plant-parasitic nematode. Using this definition, we provide the first systems-level understanding of the origin, deployment and evolution of a plant parasitic nematode effectorome. Robust identification of the comprehensive effectorome of a plant-parasitic nematode underpins our understanding of nematode pathology, and hence crop protection. Results from this work provide an overview of cyst nematode parasitism which can inform further functional studies of effectors and validates gland-cell transcriptomics as a method for effector discovery. Uncovering the development altering ‘toolbox’ of plant-parasitic nematodes can enable biotechnology, crop protection and uncover fundamental aspects of plant biology. This cross-transcriptional network can provide a basis for identifying potential targets for future functional work in plant-parasitic nematode effector biology.