|HUANG, NEIL - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|LICHTENSTEIN, ALICE - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|MATUSZEK, GREGORY - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|MATTHAN, NIRUPA - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
Submitted to: Metabolites
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/24/2023
Publication Date: 3/26/2023
Citation: Huang, N.K., Lichtenstein, A.H., Matuszek, G.H., Matthan, N. 2023. Comparison of plasma metabolome response to diets enriched in soybean and partially-hydrogenated soybean oil in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults - a pilot study. Metabolites. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13040474.
Interpretive Summary: Dietary fat type plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with polyunsaturated (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) has been demonstrated to lower CVD risk, with the exception of one specific group of dietary unsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA). The majority of TFAs consumed are produced by industrial hydrogenation of plant oils to create solid fats (e.g. margarine). Soybean oil is the most widely produced and consumed edible oil in the U.S. The purpose of this work was to understand the effect of consuming soybean oil-based margarine (PHSO) compared to native soybean oil (SO) on metabolites found in our blood and how these relate to CVD risk factors. We used samples from a controlled cross-over feeding trial during which individuals consumed both the SO and PHSO diets in random order. We identified 7 metabolites as potential biomarkers for PHSO intake and our results provide a possible explanation for the unfavorable effects of partially-hydrogenated fat intake on CVD risk.
Technical Abstract: Partially-hydrogenated fat/trans fatty acid intake has been associated with adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. Comparatively unexplored is the effect of unmodified oil relative to partially-hydrogenated fat on the plasma metabolite profile and lipid-related pathways. To address this gap, we conducted secondary analyses using a subset of samples randomly selected from a controlled dietary intervention trial involving moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals. Participants (N = 10, 63 +\- 8 y, BMI, 26.2 +\- 4.2 kg/m2, LDL-C, 3.9 +\- 0.5 mmol/L) were provided with diets enriched in soybean oil (SO) and partially-hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO). Plasma metabolite concentrations were determined using an untargeted approach and pathway analysis using LIPIDMAPS. Data were assessed using a volcano plot, receiver operating characteristics curve, partial least square-discrimination analysis and Pearson correlations. Among the known metabolites higher in plasma after the PHSO diet than the SO diet, the majority were phospholipids (53%) and di- and triglycerides (DG/TG, 34%). Pathway analysis indicated upregulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis from DG and phosphatidylethanolamine. We identified seven metabolites (TG_56:9, TG_54:8, TG_54:7, TG_54:6, TG_48:5, DG_36:5 and benproperine) as potential biomarkers for PHSO intake. These data indicate that TG-related metabolites were the most affected lipid species, and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis was the most active pathway in response to PHSO compared to SO intake.