Location: Children's Nutrition Research CenterTitle: Sex-specific associations between urinary bisphenols concentrations during pregnancy and problematic child behaviors at age 2 years
|GEIGER, SARAH - University Of Illinois|
|MUSAAD, SALMA - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)|
|HILL, JENNIFER - Southern Illinois School Of Medicine|
|AGUIAR, ANDREA - University Of Illinois|
|SCHANTZ, SUSAN - University Of Illinois|
Submitted to: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/9/2023
Publication Date: 1/13/2023
Citation: Geiger, S.D., Musaad, S., Hill, J., Aguiar, A., Schantz, S. 2023. Sex-specific associations between urinary bisphenols concentrations during pregnancy and problematic child behaviors at age 2 years. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 96. Article 107152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2023.107152.
Interpretive Summary: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made chemical used in the manufacture of many consumer products. The most common source of BPA exposure among humans is diet due to leaching from polycarbonate products and can liners into liquids and food intended for human consumption. BPA crosses the placenta during in utero development. After birth, infants can experience continued exposure to BPA through breastmilk. With a growing body of scientific literature on the negative health effects associated with BPA exposure, another chemical, bisphenol S (BPS), has been replacing BPA in an increasing number of consumer products. Although still understudied, existing research suggests that health effects of BPS may be analogous to, and in some cases more pronounced than those of BPA, including Type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. At the time of this study, there are no known epidemiological studies on BPS and behavior at any age. Effects of prenatal BPA exposure on child behavior are mixed, with some reports suggesting increased problematic behaviors in girls and in boys (e.g., aggression, emotional reactivity, and sleep problems), while other reports suggest decreased problematic behaviors in girls only. Little is known about the potential impact of pregnancy BPS exposure on child behavior. In our study, we evaluated pregnancy BPA and BPS, and problematic child behaviors in 68 children at age 2. Findings were mixed overall, but we found that BPA and BPS were related to increased problematic behaviors among girls compared to boys. There is a need for replication of findings due to our small sample size. Additionally, following these children over time would be beneficial in assessing changes across development.
Technical Abstract: Effects of prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on child behavior are mixed with some reports suggesting increased problematic behaviors in girls (e.g., aggression and emotional reactivity) and in boys (i.e., externalizing behaviors), while other reports suggest decreased problematic behaviors in girls. Little is known about the potential impact of pregnancy bisphenol S (BPS) exposure on child behavior. In a prospective cohort study (n=68), five maternal spot urine samples collected across pregnancy were pooled and analyzed for BPA and BPS. Child behavior at 2 years was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Linear regression models were used to assess associations between bisphenols concentrations and both composite and syndrome CBCL scales. Exposure x child sex interactions were included in addition to their main effects and sex-stratified analyses were conducted. Models were adjusted for maternal age, number of siblings, and child age at CBCL intake. Mean maternal age was 29.7 years. Most women were White (88%), had an annual household income >=$50,000 (66%), and at least a college degree (81%). Median concentrations were 1.3 ng/mL (range 0.4-7.2) for BPA and 0.3 ng/mL (range 0.1-3.5) for BPS. Sex modified the relationship between BPA and scores on several syndrome scales-anxious-depressed, aggressive, and sleep problems-where the association was consistently inverse in males in lower BPA concentrations, and positive (more reported behavior problems) among girls in the higher BPA group. Higher BPS was associated with more problematic internalizing behaviors among girls but not boys, and sex modified the relationship between BPS and emotionally reactive behaviors (Pinteraction=0.128), with sex-specific estimates revealing more emotionally reactive behaviors among girls (exp(B)=3.92 95% CI 1.16, 13.27; P=0.028) but not boys. Findings were mixed overall, but one notable finding was that BPS, a replacement for BPA, was associated with increased problematic behaviors. There is a need for replication of findings due to our small sample size.