|BHAT, ADIL - Aligarh Muslim University|
|SHAKEEL, ADNAN - Aligarh Muslim University|
|WAQAR, SONIA - Aligarh Muslim University|
|KHAN, ABRAR - Aligarh Muslim University|
Submitted to: Plants
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/16/2023
Publication Date: 1/18/2023
Citation: Bhat, A.A., Shakeel, A., Waqar, S., Handoo, Z.A., Khan, A.A. 2023. Microbes vs. Nematodes: Insights into Biocontrol through Antagonistic Organisms to control Root-Knot Nematodes. Plants. 12(451):1-21
Interpretive Summary: Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms that feed on plants and cause an estimated ten billion dollars of crop losses each year in the United States and 100 billion dollars globally. Considering the economic losses caused by root-knot nematodes, there is an immediate need to control these plant parasites by suitable methods. Various approaches have been used for their control which include chemicals, host plant resistance, crop rotation, soil solarisation, and introduction of antagonistic organisms etc. Crop rotation is very commonly used for nematode control, but it requires adequate land to produce alternate crops that are non-hosts to the nematodes. Also, these alternate crops must bring good profits to grower. This review article is significant because the necessity of such an alternate approach signifies the importance of biocontrol, which exploits the natural processes of various microorganisms, bacteria and fungi for controlling these parasitic nematodes. Therefore, this information will be used by scientists, diagnosticians, growers, action agencies, and extension agencies involved in nematode research and control.
Technical Abstract: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are sedentary endoparasites and cause severe economic losses to agricultural crops globally. Due to the regulations of European union on the application of chemical nematicides, it is crucial now to discover ecofriendly control strategies for nematode management. Biocontrol is one such safe and reliable method for managing these polyphagous nematodes. Biocontrol agents not only control these parasitic nematodes but also improve the plant growth and induce systemic resistance in plants against a variety of biotic stresses. A wide range of organisms like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoans live in their natural mode as nematode antagonists. This review therefore, focuses on the biocontrol of root-knot nematodes by discussing their important known antagonists and the mode of action and interactions.