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ARS Home » Plains Area » Lubbock, Texas » Cropping Systems Research Laboratory » Livestock Issues Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #399948

Research Project: Environmental and Management Influences on Animal Productivity and Well-Being Phenotypes

Location: Livestock Issues Research

Title: Investigating the role of soybean meal and its innate bioactive functional compounds on nursery pig systemic health, inflammatory markers, and gastrointestinal physiology

item BOWEN, BROOKE - Texas Tech University
item SASSER, CASSIDY - Texas Tech University
item Sanchez, Nicole
item Broadway, Paul
item Carroll, Jeffery - Jeff Carroll
item LEGAKO, JERRAD - Texas Tech University
item PETRY, AMY - Texas Tech University

Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science Supplement
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/5/2022
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Soybean meal (SBM) inclusion is deterred in young pig diets due to the perception it negatively impacts performance. Recently, research has shown that SBM fed to grower pigs under disease or environmental stress may improve their health through immune system modulation due to its bioactive compounds, but this is incompletely understood in the nursery pig. The experimental objective was to examine the role of SBM and its bioactive functional compounds on nursery pig gastrointestinal physiology, systemic health, and inflammatory markers. Two replications of 18 barrows (8.12 ± 0.80 kg BW; PIC800 × Camborough; N=36), were randomly assigned to dietary treatments: a high SBM control (SBMC; 28.6%), a control void of SBM (SP), but included soy protein isolate and concentrate to provide amino acids from soy protein the same as SBM in SBMC; SP formulated to the same contribution and composition of isoflavones as SBMC (SP+ISO; 528 mg/kg of soy-isoflavones); SP diet fortified with soybean functional lipids of lecithin and phytosterols at similar level in SBMC (SP+LIP; 2.85 g/kg of functional lipids); SP formulated to the same contribution and ratio of insoluble to soluble fiber as SBM in SBMC (SP+FIB; 30 g/kg of soy fiber); or SP diet fortified with lunasin peptide at 3.81 g/kg (SP+LUN). Pigs were individually housed, and limit fed 2.5 times maintenance for a metabolism study consisting of a 6-d adaptation period, followed by 72-h of urine and fecal collections, and a 48-h lactulose: mannitol test. On d 11, whole blood and serum were collected prior to feeding, and at 2, 5, and 24 h post-feeding via jugular-venipuncture. Serum was analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Hematology was measured on whole blood within 30 minutes of collection. On d 12, pigs were necropsied where intestinal tissues were collected. Data were analyzed as a linear mixed model with treatment as a fixed effect and replicate as a random effect, and initial BW as a covariate where appropriate. A dependent covariance structure was used for repeated measurements. Pigs fed either SBMC or SP+LIP had greater mean corpuscular volume and hematocrit % (P=0.027). Relative to the SP diet, pigs fed SP+LIP tended to have 11.4% greater hemoglobin concentrations (P=0.086). Pigs fed SBMC and SP+ISO diet had decreased circulating total white blood cells (WBC; P=0.002) and reduced neutrophil counts (P=0.043). Relative to SP, SBMC, SP+ISO, and SP+FIB tended to have increased systemic TAC (P=0.086). Pigs fed either SBMC or SPC+ISO has increased TAC in the jejunum (P=0.039), but those fed SPC+FIB had increased TAC in the ileum and reduced MDA (P<0.05). In conclusion, SBM and its isoflavones altered WBC concentrations. Whereas, SBM functional lipids may alter red blood cells, and SBM fiber modulated oxidative status.