Location: Commodity Utilization ResearchTitle: Bioactivity of cottonseed-derived materials for nutrition and health
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/2/2022
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: NOT REQUIRED FOR ABSTRACT (DMH)
Technical Abstract: Plant polyphenols have been used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases since ancient history. Cottonseed contains many bioactive compounds including polyphenols. Therefore, cottonseed value might be increased by providing bioactive polyphenols for improving nutrition and health. The specific objectives of this study were to isolate bioactive polyphenolic extracts free of gossypol from cottonseed, to study the effect of cottonseed extracts on cell viability of mammalian cells, and to study the effect of cottonseed extracts on gene expression in mammalian cells. Glanded and glandless cottonseed was used in the study. Cottonseed coat and kernel was ground and sequentially extracted with chloroform, hexane and ethanol. Ethanol extracts were evaluated by mass spectrometry to be essentially free of gossypol (<1 ppm, FDA guideline: 450 ppm). Cottonseed extracts were used to treat mammalian cells, along with plant toxin gossypol and bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cottonseed extracts and LPS had minor effects on cell viability, but gossypol had strong inhibitory effects on cancer and immunological cells. Expression of genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR for important biomarkers involved in insulin signaling pathway (IR, PIK3R1, PKB/AKT1, GSK3b), glucose transport (GLUT), lipid biosynthesis (DGAT), and inflammatory responses (TTP, HuR, TNF, COX, GM-CSF, INFr, IL, VEGF). The results showed that cottonseed extracts had small effects, but gossypol and LPS had strong effects on gene expression. Kernel extract significantly reduced mRNA levels of many proinflammatory cytokine genes, suggesting potential effects of cottonseed kernel extracts on reducing inflammation. These results suggest that cottonseed value may be increased by providing bioactive ethanol extract to be used for improving nutrition and preventing inflammatory diseases.