Location: Plant, Soil and Nutrition ResearchTitle: Health implications and nutrient bioavailability of bioactive compounds in dry beans and other pulses
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/15/2021
Publication Date: 1/19/2022
Citation: Wiesinger, J.A., Marsolais, F., Glahn, R.P. 2022. Health implications and nutrient bioavailability of bioactive compounds. In: Siddiqu, M. and Uebersax, M. Dry Beans and Pulses Production, Processing and Nutrition. 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. p. 505-530.
Interpretive Summary: Pulse crops produced for direct human consumption (dry bean, dry pea, lentil, and chickpea) are an important source of protein and complex carbohydrates for millions living throughout Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America and Southern Europe. Pulses are a rich source of dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals, which include folate, iron, and zinc. Dry beans and pulses also have high concentrations of non-nutrient bioactive compounds such as oligosaccharides, polyphenols, phytic acid and saponins. The health benefits of consuming dry beans and pulses are attributed to their high nutrient density working in concert with bioactive compounds to promote the health of the digestive system and to prevent the onset of obesity related disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This chapter describes the biochemistry and health implications of consuming non-nutritive bioactive compounds from dry beans and other pulses with an emphasis on the biological pathways and effects on nutrient bioavailability, which are either maintained or altered in relation to health and disease.
Technical Abstract: The term “antinutrients” is often used to describe the non-nutrient bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) in dry beans and pulses that interfere with digestion or impair the bioavailability of trace minerals, such as zinc or iron. Antinutrients that effect nutrient bioavailability in the upper intestine also have prebiotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that benefit the health of the lower intestine. Therefore, the term “antinutrient” is often misleading. The concentrations, diversity and chemistry of bioactive compounds in dry beans and pulses are unique to fruits and vegetables, and the health promoting properties of dry beans and pulses complement well with either a plant-based diet or mixed diet. This chapter focuses on describing the health implications of consuming non-nutritive bioactive compounds from dry beans and pulses, which include oligosaccharides, polyphenols, phytate, lectins, enzyme inhibitors, bioactive peptides and saponins. This chapter describes both the positive and negative health effects of consuming bioactive compounds from dry beans and pulses, with an emphasis on the biological pathways and cellular mechanisms that are maintained (or altered) in relation to health and disease.