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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania » Eastern Regional Research Center » Microbial and Chemical Food Safety » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #396104

Research Project: Development and Validation of Predictive Models and Pathogen Modeling Programs; and Data Acquisition for International Microbial Databases

Location: Microbial and Chemical Food Safety

Title: Bacteria: Clostridium perfringens

item Juneja, Vijay
item TANEJA, NEETU - National Institute Of Food Technology Entrepreneurship And Management(NIFTEM)
item THAKUR, SHEETAL - Maharishi University

Submitted to: The Encyclopedia of Food
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/25/2023
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-former that can be found in a wide range of natural environments, including the human and animal gastrointestinal tract. This bacterium can produce at least 20 different toxins in a variety of combinations. C. perfringens strains are classified into seven toxinotypes (A–G) based on the presence or absence of various proteinaceous toxins such as alpha, beta, epsilon, iota, enterotoxin CPE, and necrotic toxin netB. These gene-encoded toxins cause different diseases in humans and animals. In particular, C. perfringens Type F is responsible for human food poisoning making this pathogen the second most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, responsible for one million illnesses per year. Compared to other C. perfringens strains, the vegetative cells and spores of C. perfringens food poisoning strains are often exceptionally resistant to food environment stresses. CPE, which causes the diarrheic and cramping symptoms of C. perfringens type F food poisoning, is a unique pore-forming toxin that interacts with claudin receptors. Clostridium perfringens type F food poisoning is best detected by demonstrating the presence of (1) large numbers of cpe-positive cells or spores in food vehicles or feces of ill people or (2) CPE in food poisoning victim's feces. Control is by rigid adherence to proper cooking, holding, and storage conditions for foods.