Location: Infectious Bacterial Diseases ResearchTitle: Understanding leptospirosis: application of state-of-the-art molecular typing tools with a One Health lens
|SYKES, JANE - University Of California, Davis|
|GAMAGE, CHANDIKA - University Of Peradeniya|
|HAAKE, DAVID - University Of California (UCLA)|
Submitted to: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/22/2022
Publication Date: 8/24/2022
Citation: Sykes, J.E., Gamage, C.D., Haake, D.A., Nally, J.E. 2022. Understanding leptospirosis: application of state-of-the-art molecular typing tools with a One Health lens. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 83. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.22.06.0104.
Interpretive Summary: This is a review manuscript that describes the need for a One Health approach in conjunction with state-of-the-art molecular tools to truly understand the epidemiology of the global zoonotic disease leptospirosis.
Technical Abstract: As an archetypal One Health problem described in the companion Currents in One Health manuscript by Sykes et al, JAVMA, September 2022, a thorough understanding of leptospirosis requires a detailed analysis of the elaborate interplay among pathogenic leptospiral strains, host species, and the environment. Such an understanding is required to inform appropriate preventative measures including vaccine design, prophylaxis efforts, educational programs that help to reduce exposure to pathogenic spirochetes, as well as policy development. Because of the complex epidemiology of leptospirosis, a One Health approach as defined by the One Health Initiative Task Force is critical – an approach that calls for “the collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally, to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment”. Over the last three decades, progressive advances in cutting-edge molecular typing techniques, as well as our ability to rapidly generate and share large amounts of sequence data through establishment and growth of databases, have been central to accelerating a One Health understanding of the epidemiology of leptospirosis. Nevertheless, our dependence on serotype information because of the serovar-specific nature of current vaccines means that laborious serotyping efforts continue. With the advent of new approaches such as mRNA vaccines that are based on non-lipopolysaccharide immunogens, sequence- and/or proteomics- based typing methods may replace these methods.