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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fort Collins, Colorado » Center for Agricultural Resources Research » Agricultural Genetic Resources Preservation Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #394981

Research Project: National Animal Germplasm Program

Location: Agricultural Genetic Resources Preservation Research

Title: Processed meat characteristics between commercial Duroc-sired and heritage breed Large Black pigs

item GUO, YUFEL - Purdue University
item SHARP, KATHARINE - Purdue University
item Blackburn, Harvey
item RICHERT, BRIAN - Purdue University
item STEWART, KARA - Purdue University
item ZUELLY, STACY - Purdue University

Submitted to: Foods
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/29/2022
Publication Date: 8/2/2022
Citation: Guo, Y., Sharp, K., Blackburn, H.D., Richert, B., Stewart, K., Zuelly, S. 2022. Processed meat characteristics between commercial Duroc-sired and heritage breed Large Black pigs. Foods. 11(15). Article e2310.

Interpretive Summary: Carcass quality information on rare breeds of pigs is missing from the literature, thereby hindering the ability to promote the use of rare breeds or select for improved carcass characteristics. This study compared Large Black (LB, a rare breed) and crossbred Duroc (DS) on a typical commercial diet (CON) vs a high in fiber (FIB) diet. The study provided various novel insights into the processing characteristics of LB and DS pigs fed CON and FIB diets. In terms of breed, the DS pigs had greater belly processing yield, and contained much higher percent lean compared to the LB pigs. Although firmer bellies could be ideal during slicing, however, the excessive amount of backfat on the LB bellies may have outweighed the benefit of increased firmness. Overall, both breeds performed best when fed diets similar to their commercial management practices (i.e., high energy for DS and high fiber for LB).

Technical Abstract: This study examined the meat processing characteristics between Duroc-sired (DS) and heritage breed Large Black (LB) pigs fed high forage (FIB) or commercial diets (CON). Fifty pigs (DS, n=25; LB, n=25) were used in a 2x2 factorial design with breed and diet as fixed effects. Processing traits were measured for fresh bellies, bacon slices and sausage patties. Results showed DS bellies were longer (p < 0.001) but thinner (p = 0.026). CON bellies were longer (p = 0.005) and thicker (p < 0.001). LB bellies had decreased lean area (p < 0.001) and processing yield (p = 0.001). DS patties were lighter (L*, p < 0.001) and less red (a*, p < 0.001). LB had increased belly firmness (p = 0.053). CON diet resulted in better particle definition (p = 0.010) in patties as well as larger slice area (p = 0.048) in bacon slices. A breed x diet interaction was observed for lipid oxidation (p = 0.001). The findings provided novel insight into the comparison between these breeds and diets. While LB pork may have niche market value, the integration of this breed into commercial bacon processing has limitations in composition that need to be further evaluated to improve the product desirability.