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ARS Home » Plains Area » College Station, Texas » Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center » Food and Feed Safety Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #394972

Research Project: Immunological and Practical Approaches to Manipulate the Ecological Niches and Reduce Foodborne Pathogens in Poultry

Location: Food and Feed Safety Research

Title: Protected biofactors and antioxidants reduce the negative consequences of virus and cold challenge while enhancing performance by modulating immunometabolism through cytoskeletal and immune signaling in the jejunum

item PERRY, FAMATTA - University Of Delaware
item LAHAYE, LUDOVIC - Jefo Nutrition Canada
item JOHNSON, CASEY - University Of Delaware
item KORVER, DOUGLAS - University Of Alberta
item Kogut, Michael - Mike
item ARSENAULT, RYAN - University Of Delaware

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/30/2022
Publication Date: 12/12/2022
Citation: Perry, F., Lahaye, L., Johnson, C., Korver, D., Kogut, M.H., Arsenault, R. 2022. Protected biofactors and antioxidants reduce the negative consequences of virus and cold challenge while enhancing performance by modulating immunometabolism through cytoskeletal and immune signaling in the jejunum. Poultry Science. 101(12). Article e102172.

Interpretive Summary: In the past chicks were given low levels of antibiotics in their feed to help them grow. However, this caused problems with germs becoming resistant to the antibiotics. Therefore, research has started looking at more 'green' methods to help chicks grow better. In these experiments, we fed the chicks diets containing new chemicals (antioxidants) to reduce toxic products produced by digesting feed. These new 'green' chemicals are coated with a material that protects them from being destroyed in the stomach and allows the chemicals to get to specific parts of the gut to help relieve the negative effects of early life stress on the chicks. We found that the chicks grew better with these protected chemicals than those not fed the protected chemicals because they destroy the toxic materials and allow the chick's gut to absorb and digest more beneficial feed ingredients. These results are important to the poultry industry which is under pressure from consumers to find better ways to produce poultry that will provide high quality meat in a safer and more efficient manner.

Technical Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanism of action of two feed additives in reducing the impacts of physiological stressors. We compared the effects of protected biofactors and antioxidants (P(BF+AOx)), and protected biofactors and antioxidants with protected organic acids and essential oils (P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO)) on the immune and metabolic health of Ross 308 chickens. These biofactors and antioxidants were derived from vitamins, and Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, and Bacillus subtilis fermentation extracts. All Ross 308 chickens were exposed to a double-dose of live bronchitis vaccine at day 0 and environmentally challenged by reducing the temperature from 30-32C to 20-23C at day 3 for 48 hours. Control birds were fed without feed additives in the diet. Performance data and jejunum samples were collected to evaluate the effects of these treatments on growth, cytokine expression, and protein phosphorylation via kinome peptide array. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the performance and gene expression data (p-value of 0.05), and PIIKA2 was used for statistical evaluation and comparison of the kinome peptide array data. The P(BF+AOx) and P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) treatments resulted in significantly increased bird weight gain and feed conversion. The kinome peptide array data analysis showed increased activity of cytoskeletal, cell growth, proliferation proteins, and metabolic signaling in the jejunum of P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) treated chickens. There was a significant decrease in IL-6 gene expression in the jejunum of P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) samples compared to control at day 15. P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) treatments in the jejunum showed strong immunomodulatory effects, perhaps to control inflammation. P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) improves gut health via growth and metabolic signaling in the jejunum while inducing stronger immunomodulation.