|HUANG, NEIL - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|MATTHAN, NIRUPA - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|MATUSZEK, GREGORY - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|LICHTENSTEIN, ALICE - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
Submitted to: Metabolites
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/23/2022
Publication Date: 2/25/2022
Citation: Huang, N.K., Matthan, N., Matuszek, G.H., Lichtenstein, A.H. 2022. Plasma metabolite profiles following consumption of animal protein and soybean-based diet in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Metabolites. 12(3):209. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030209.
Interpretive Summary: Self-reported (subjective) reports of food intake can be unreliable. Helpful would be multiple plasma (objective) markers of diet quality. Our aim was to determine whether plasma metabolites would be an indicator of dietary protein type. To accomplish this we used samples from a controlled cross-over feeding trial during which individuals consumed both a plant-based diet containing soy protein and animal-based diet containing beef and chicken in random order. Measured was fasting plasma metabolites (untargeted) and cardiometabolic risk factors at the end of each diet phase. Female post-menopausal women participated in the study and were chosen to have high LDL cholesterol concentrations. Of the metabolites that differed between the two diets, the major ones were amino acid, phospholipids and xenobiotic (isoflavones)-derived metabolites. None of these metabolites were related to cardiometabolic risk factor concentrations. In conclusion, selected plasma metabolites differed on the basis of dietary protein type. If confirmed, the measurement of these metabolites could serve as objective markers to distinguish between dietary protein type.
Technical Abstract: Subjective reporting of food intake can be unreliable. No objective method is available to distinguish between diets differing in protein type. To address this gap, a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled cross-over feeding trial was conducted. Assessed were fasting plasma metabolite profiles and their associations with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs). Hypercholesoterolemic post-menopausal women (N = 11) were provided with diets containing predominantly animal protein (AP) and soy protein (SP). Untargeted metabolomics were used to determine the plasma metabolite profiles at the end of each diet phase. Concentrations of identified metabolites (N = 829) were compared using paired t-tests adjusted for False discovery rate, partial least square-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC). Among the identified metabolites, 58 differed significantly between the AP and SP diets; the majority were phospholipids (n = 36), then amino acids (n = 10), xenobiotics (n = 7), vitamin/vitamin-related (n = 3) and lipids (n = 2). Of the top 10 metabolites, amino acid-derived metabolites, phospholipids and xenobiotics comprised the main categories differing due to dietary protein type. ROC curves confirmed that the top 10 metabolites were potential discriminating biomarkers for AP- and SP-rich diets. In conclusion, amino acid-derived metabolites, phosphatidylethanolamine-derived metabolites and isoflavones were identified as potential metabolite biomarkers distinguishing between dietary protein type.