|MANCINNELLI, ALICE - University Of Perugia|
|MATTIOLI, SIMONA - University Of Perugia|
|TWINING, CORNELIA - Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute Of Aquatic Science And Technology|
|DAL BOSCO, ALESSANDRO - University Of Perugia|
|Donoghue, Ann - Annie|
|ARSI, KOMALA - University Of Arkansas|
|CHAITTELLI, DILETTA - University Of Perugia|
|ANGELUCCI, ELISA - University Of Perugia|
|CASTELLINI, CESARE - University Of Perugia|
Submitted to: Nutrients
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/3/2022
Publication Date: 5/8/2022
Citation: Mancinnelli, A.C., Mattioli, S., Twining, C., Dal Bosco, A., Donoghue, A.M., Arsi, K., Chaittelli, D., Angelucci, E., Castellini, C. 2022. Poultry meat and eggs as an alternative source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for human nutrition. Nutrients. 14(9). Article 1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091969.
Interpretive Summary: The beneficial functions of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 series (n-3 LCP) in human health are well known as well as the importance of having a lower n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio in diets. However, humans are inefficient in synthesizing LCP; consequently, a certain amount of these compounds need to be acquired directly from the diet. Fish are one of the richest sources of n-3 LCP, but due to the potential of low sustainability of both fishing and aquaculture, it is important to shift the focus to n-3 source derived from terrestrial animals with higher nutritional value and with lower environmental impacts. This review aims to provide a general overview on the importance of the n-3 LCP in human diets and focuses on ways to increase their content in terrestrial animal products. Also, the various factors related to increasing and preserving n-3 LCP in chicken products throughout the production chain are also outlined. Several studies have demonstrated that it is possible to increase the n-3 LCP content of animal origin products through different strategies such as dietary supplementation, genetic selection and rearing systems management. Moreover, pre- (transport to slaughterhouse) and post-mortem factors (cooking) can affect the preservation of the n-3 LCP enrichment in foods. For enriching and preserving the n-3 LCP in poultry products a multifactorial approach should be adopted that encourages the use of multiple strategies throughout the entire production chain. Further research efforts are still needed to clearly define the storage efficiency of the different strategies for the enrichment of poultry meat and eggs.
Technical Abstract: The beneficial effects of n-3 LCP (Long Chain PUFA) on human health are widely known. Humans are rather inefficient in synthetizing n-3 LCP, thus, these compounds should be supplemented in the diet. However, most Western human diets have unbalanced n-6/n-3 ratios resulting from eating habits and the fact that fish sources (rich in n-3 LCPs) are not sufficient (worldwide deficit ~ 347,956 t/y) to meet world requirements. In this context it is necessary to find new and sustainable sources of n-3 LCP. Poultry products can provide humans n-3 LCP due to physiological characteristics and the wide consumption of meat and eggs. The present work aims to provide a general overview of the main strategies that should be adopted during rearing and postproduction to enrich and preserve n-3 LCP in poultry products. The strategies include dietary supplementation of a-Linolenic acid (ALA) and/or n-3 LCPs; enhance n-3 LCPs by increasing the LA (Linoleic acid)/ALA ratio and antioxidant concentrations. In addition, factors such as genotype, type of rearing systems, stress and cooking processes can impact the n-3 LCPs in poultry products. The use of multifactorial view in the entire production chain allows a relevant enrichment and preservation of n-3 LCPs in poultry products.