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ARS Home » Plains Area » Bushland, Texas » Conservation and Production Research Laboratory » Livestock Nutrient Management Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #392944

Research Project: Strategies to Manage Feed Nutrients, Reduce Gas Emissions, and Promote Soil Health for Beef and Dairy Cattle Production Systems of the Southern Great Plains

Location: Livestock Nutrient Management Research

Title: Association of glucose metabolism with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of beef steers

item FOOTE, ANDREW - Oklahoma State University
item SALISBURY, CARLEE - Oklahoma State University
item Beck, Matthew - Matt
item MONTGOMERY, DAGAN - Oklahoma State University
item RATHERT-WILLIAMS, ABIGAIL - University Of Missouri
item KING, MINDY - Oklahoma State University

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/22/2022
Publication Date: 9/21/2022
Citation: Foote, A.P., Salisbury, C., Beck, M.R., Montgomery, D., Rathert-Williams, A., King, M. 2022. Association of glucose metabolism with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of beef steers [abstract]. Journal of Animal Science. 100:365.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity with dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency (G:F) of steers fed a finishing diet. Steers (n = 55; initial body weight 518 ± 26.7 kg) were subjected to an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) where glucose was dosed through a jugular catheter and serial blood samples were collected. Three days after the final IVGTT, steers began a 63-d DMI and ADG test. Body weight was measured on d 0, 1, 21, 42, 62, and 63, and DMI was measured using an Insentec Roughage Intake Control system (Insentec, Markenesse, The Netherlands). Peak insulin concentration in response to the IVGTT tended to be correlated with ADG (r = 0.25; P = 0.07) and DMI (r = 0.23; P = 0.09), indicating cattle with greater ADG and DMI tend to require a greater insulin release in response to glucose. Glucose nadir concentrations were correlated with ADG (r = 0.27; P = 0.044) and G:F (r = 0.37; P = 0.005). Additionally, when steers within 0.5 standard deviations of the mean for DMI are classed as displaying high- or low-ADG, glucose nadir was greater in high-ADG steers (P = 0.042). The association of greater glucose nadir with high-ADG could indicate that high-ADG steers do not clear glucose as efficiently as low-ADG steers, potentially indicating reduced insulin sensitivity. Carcass marbling score was negatively correlated with area under the glucose curve (r = -0.38; P = 0.006), glucose clearance rate (r = -0.33; P = 0.016), and glucose nadir concentration (r = -0.40; P = 0.004). These results indicate that glucose metabolism and insulin signaling are associated with growth, efficiency, and carcass quality, but the molecular mechanisms that drive these effects need to be elucidated.