|HUSSAIN, TAJAMUL - Prince Of Songkla University|
|HUSSAIN, NURDA - Prince Of Songkla University|
|AHMED, MUKHTAR - University Of Arid Agriculture|
|TAHIR, MUHAMMAD - University Of Minnesota|
|DUANGPAN, SAOWAPA - Prince Of Songkla University|
Submitted to: Frontiers in Plant Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/5/2022
Publication Date: 5/18/2022
Citation: Hussain, T., Gollany, H.T., Hussain, N., Ahmed, M., Tahir, M., Duangpan, S. 2022. Synchronizing nitrogen fertilization and planting date to improve resource use efficiency, productivity, and profitability of upland rice. Frontiers in Plant Science. 13. Article 895811. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.895811.
Interpretive Summary: Synchronizing nitrogen (N) fertilization with planting date could enhance water and nutrients use efficiency and profitability of upland rice production. The objective of this study was to assess the upland rice responses to four N fertilizer rates and three planting dates. Field experiments were conducted during two growing seasons. Four N fertilization rates used were: 0, 27, 54 and 80 lb/ac, and they were applied at tillering and panicle emergence stages. The planting dates selected were between September to December of each growing season. The fertilization rates and planting times had a significant influence on the N uptake, N use efficiencies, crop water productivity, yield, yield attributes, and profitability of upland rice production. There was a linear relationship between N fertilizer rate, grain yield, aboveground biomass, and a significant seasonal effect. Fertilization at 80 lb/ac and intermediate planting date produced the maximum upland rice performance and grain yield. Crop water productivity was increased by 56% and 105% during the second and first seasons, respectively. Grain N, total N, straw N, and N uptake were increased by 159%, 159%, and 160% during the first season, and by 90%, 114%, and 153% during the second season. Nitrogen use efficiencies varied under N fertilization; however, maximum efficiencies were reached at the intermediate planting date during both seasons. Highly significant and positive associations were observed among agronomic attributes, N uptake, N efficiencies and crop water productivity of upland rice in correlation assessments. Maximum profitability from grain yield was at 80 lb/ac nitrogen under all planting times. However, the highest marginal benefit cost ratio was observed at 54 lb N/ac under intermediate planting dates during both seasons. Results suggest that N fertilization rates of 80 lb/ac and rice planting at the end of September and start of October would enhance productivity, resource use efficiency and maximize profitability. Long–term field trials with a range of N fertilizer rates and the adoption of forecasting measures to adjust seasonal planting dates for upland rice production are recommended.
Technical Abstract: Synchronizing nitrogen (N) fertilization with planting date (PD) could enhance resource use efficiency and profitability of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in Thailand. The objective of this study was to assess the upland rice responses to four N fertilization rates (NFRs) and three planting dates. Field experiments were conducted during two growing seasons under four NFRs, no N applied (N0), 30 (N30), 60 (N60) and 90 kg N/ha (N90), and NFR were applied at the initiation of tillering and panicle emergence stages. The planting dates selected were early (PD1), intermediate (PD2), and late planting (PD3) between September and December of each season. The NFRs and planting dates had a significant influence on the N uptake, N use efficiencies (NUE), crop water productivity, yield and yield attributes, and profitability of upland rice production. A linear relationship among NFRs, agronomic traits of upland rice, N uptake, and crop water productivity was observed, and a significant seasonal effect was indicated. Fertilization at N90 under PD2 enhanced yield, yield attributes and grain yields, as well as crop water productivity by 56 and 105% during the second and first seasons, respectively. Grain N, total N, and straw N were increased by 159, 159, and 160%, and by 90,114, and 153%, during the first and the second season, respectively. Enhanced N use efficiencies, including agronomic efficiencies, recovery efficiency, partial factor productivity, and N harvest index, at varying NFRs were observed under PD2 during both seasons. Highly significant (p <0.001) and positive associations were observed among agronomic attributes, N uptake, NUE and crop water productivity of upland rice in correlation assessment. Profitability from grain yields was observed with N fertilization and N90 resulted in maximum profit under all the PDs. However, the highest marginal benefit-cost ratio was observed at N60 under PD2 during both seasons. The results suggest that the NFR of 90 kg N ha–1 and planting at the end of September or start of October would enhance resource use efficiency and productivity, and maximize profitability. Furthermore, long–term field investigations with a range of NFR and adopting forecasting measures to adjust the planting date for upland rice production are recommended.