Location: Immunity and Disease Prevention ResearchTitle: Diversity of monosaccharide composition of diets consumed by healthy U.S. adults is highly variable and positively associated with the healthy eating index
|CASTILLO, JUAN - University Of California, Davis|
|BACALZO, NIKITA - University Of California, Davis|
|COUTURE, GARRET - University Of California, Davis|
|LABRILLA, CARLITO - University Of California, Davis|
Submitted to: Current Developments in Nutrition
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/14/2022
Publication Date: 8/14/2022
Citation: Larke, J.A., Chin, E.L., Castillo, J.J., Bacalzo, N., Couture, G., Stephensen, C.B., Labrilla, C.B., Lemay, D.G. 2022. Diversity of monosaccharide composition of diets consumed by healthy U.S. adults is highly variable and positively associated with the healthy eating index. Current Developments in Nutrition. 6/519. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzac077.022.
Interpretive Summary: In effort to better understand how diet feeds our gut microbes, we must first dissect the glycans in our diet that feed them. In this study, we mapped diet data of a healthy human cohort to a database of glycans in food (Glycopedia) to determine the level of individual sugar monomers, or monosaccharides, in the diets of healthy adults living in the U.S. We found that, on average, dietary carbohydrates were comprised of mostly glucose (79.8%) followed by galactose (6.0%), fructose (5.7%), mannose (3.0%), arabinose (2.5%) and xylose (1.2%). Eight additional monosaccharides were present at < 0.5% on average. The diversity of monosaccharides consumed corresponded to a healthier eating pattern which may be attributed to reduced intake of simple sugars. This is the first study to investigate dietary intake at the level of single units consumable by gut microbes.
Technical Abstract: Objective: Advances in analytical chemistry now make it possible to analyze the monosaccharide composition of foods thereby expanding dietary assessment of carbohydrates. We sought to characterize the monosaccharide composition of diets consumed in a healthy U.S. adult cohort (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02367287). Methods: Dietary records consisting of two to three Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recalls (ASA24) were obtained from 341 participants in the USDA Nutritional Phenotyping Study which assessed healthy U.S. adults balanced for age, sex, and BMI. Dietary recalls were merged with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2017-2018 to retrieve ingredient level data. From this dataset, recall items were mapped to the food glycan database (Glycopedia) to retrieve monosaccharide quantities for matching food items. Participants with at least 75% of calories consumed from carbohydrates mappable to the Glycopedia were included in the final analysis (n = 177). Results: On average, glucose comprised the majority of dietary monosaccharides (79.8% ± 6.0%, mean, SD) followed by galactose (6.0% ± 3.3%, mean, SD), fructose (5.7% ± 2.8%, mean, SD), mannose (3.0% ± 3.3%, mean, SD), arabinose (2.5% ± 1.1%, mean, SD) and xylose (1.2% ± 0.4%, mean, SD). Eight additional monosaccharides were present at < 0.5% on average. Grouping participants into quartiles of glucose consumed revealed a significant difference in the diversity of consumed monosaccharides between the top and bottom quartiles (Tukey’s HSD, p < 1e-13). Additionally, monosaccharide diversity in the diet was positively correlated with the Healthy Eating Index score after adjusting for age and BMI (Pearson’s r, r = 0.377, p < 1e-06). Conclusions: This is the first study to investigate population-based dietary intake at this resolution of food glycan composition. Greater diversity of monosaccharides in the diet