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ARS Home » Southeast Area » New Orleans, Louisiana » Southern Regional Research Center » Commodity Utilization Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #390900

Research Project: Development of Novel Cottonseed Products and Processes

Location: Commodity Utilization Research

Title: Formation of peanut butter-like products from glandless cottonseed

item He, Zhongqi
item Cheng, Huai
item HE, JIBAO - Tulane University

Submitted to: National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/25/2022
Publication Date: 5/1/2022
Citation: He, Z., Cheng, H.N., He, J. 2022. Formation of peanut butter-like products from glandless cottonseed. In: Proceedings of the National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conferences, January 4-6, 2022, San Antonio, Texas. p. 238-242.

Interpretive Summary: Plant-based (nut and seed) butters have steadily increased in consumer popularity. Exploration of the glandless cottonseeds as food products would greatly enhance the economic impacts of these new cotton lines. Thus, this work attempted to gather the basic information and manufacturing parameters for peanut butter-like products so that relevant experiments on optimization and characterization of cottonseed butter can be designed and performed later. The observations reported in this work showed that glandless cottonseed kernels could be used to make peanut butter-like food products. An initial workable formulation included 75.0% roasted cottonseed kernels, 16.8% cottonseed oil, 7.5% sugar and 0.7% salt. Microstructural analysis revealed that the butter product with a longer (30 min) roasting time possessed a smoother surface than the products with a shorter (15 min) time. On the other hand, the butter product with 30-min roasting duration showed a higher oil separation rate (up to 2.9%) than the product with 15-min roasting (1.6%). Nonetheless, the oil separation during storage of both cottonseed products was lower than those of peanut butter and walnut butter as reported in the literature, indicating higher butter stability of the cottonseed products. The evaluation of the textural properties (e. g., hardness and spreadability) of the cottonseed butters is under way.

Technical Abstract: “Glandless” (Gl) cottonseed is a unique cotton variety with only a trace content of toxic gossypol present. The new Gl cottonseed raises the potential of its enhanced utilization as agro-foods for human consumption. In this work, Gl cottonseed kernels were used as the base material to produce protein-oil butter-like formulations. Kernels roasted at two temperatures were first ground with different ratios of cottonseed oil and two other ingredients (i. e., salt and sugar) by a food blender, and then passed through a meat grinder with the 4-mm-hole grinding plate. Based on the results, the textural and microstructural properties of two butter-like products were evaluated. The morphology of the two butters was examined and compared by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and cryo-SEM. Oil stability test showed no substantial oil separation from the butter products over 7 weeks (49 days) at ambient temperature (22 oC). This work provided the basic information and parameters for lab cottonseed butter making so that optimization and characterization of cottonseed butter formation can be designed and performed in future research.