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ARS Home » Plains Area » Clay Center, Nebraska » U.S. Meat Animal Research Center » Animal Health Genomics » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #390703

Research Project: Strategies to Control Respiratory Diseases of Cattle

Location: Animal Health Genomics

Title: From genomics to MALDI-TOF MS: Diagnostic identification and typing of bacteria in veterinary clinical laboratories

item LOY, DUSTIN - University Of Nebraska
item Clawson, Michael - Mike

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/17/2023
Publication Date: 4/17/2023
Citation: Loy, D., Clawson, M.L. 2023. From genomics to MALDI-TOF MS: Diagnostic identification and typing of bacteria in veterinary clinical laboratories. In: Shah, H.N., Gharbia, S.E., Shah, A.J., Tranfield, E.Y., Thompson, K.C., editors. Microbiological Identification using MALDI-TOF and Tandem Mass Spectrometry - Industrial and Environmental Applications. April 2023 edition. New York, NY: Wiley Press. p. 283-302.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Accurate identification of bacterial pathogens by veterinary diagnostic laboratories is a critical component of effective disease treatment and outbreak prevention in animals. Two recent platforms for bacterial identification have risen to the fore in recent years, whole genome sequencing (WGS) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). WGS involves decoding the entire genetic sequence of an organism’s genome, whereas MALDI-TOF MS detects multiple expressed proteins that collectively comprise a profile based on their composition. Both platforms can be used to identify bacteria and other organisms down to the subspecies, or strain level. This level of resolution is key for identifying bacteria of veterinary importance that can differ in their pathogenesis or virulence by strain types. WGS is commonly used for general research purposes and less so for veterinary diagnostics. Conversely, MALDI-TOF MS has been adopted as a diagnostic tool by many veterinary labs in Asia, Europe, North America, and elsewhere due to its capacity for bacteria identification, ease of use, and rapid generation of results. This book chapter reviews WGS and MALDI-TOF MS technologies, principles and methods for bacterial taxonomy, and approaches for integrating the two platforms to create diagnostic tests for bacterial strain identification with MALDI-TOF MS. The chapter additionally discusses the latest techniques and approaches for utilizing MALDI-TOF MS, and future needs for better utilizing WGS and MALDI-TOF MS platforms for rapid detection and strain identification of important veterinary pathogens.