|CASON, JOHN - Texas A&M Agrilife|
|SIMPSON, CHARLES - Texas A&M Agrilife|
|BUROW, MARK - Texas A&M Agrilife|
|Tallury, Shyamalrau - Shyam|
|PHAM, HANH - Texas A&M Agrilife|
|RAVELOMBOLA, SECOND WALTTRAM - Texas A&M Agrilife|
Submitted to: Journal of Plant Registrations
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/15/2022
Publication Date: 10/25/2022
Citation: Cason, J., Simpson, C., Burow, M., Tallury, S.P., Pham, H., Ravelombola, S. 2022. Use of wild and exotic germplasm for resistance in peanut. Journal of Plant Registrations. p. 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1002/plr2.20261.
Interpretive Summary: Peanut production ranges from subsistence farming to large scale commercial operations in all continents except Antarctica. Total worldwide peanut production is approximately 45 million MT per year, with an average yield of 2,600kg/ha. The crop is susceptible to a wide range of pathogens and insect pests and also to drought and high temperature stress. On the other hand, several related peanut species contain very high levels of resistance to many of these pathogens and insect pests. However, due to the differences in their chromosome number, it is not easy to transfer these resistances into the cultivated crop species. Based on the importance of this crop to many areas of the world, this article will review some of unique characteristics of how the cultivated crop species became so susceptible, how cultivated peanut can be enhanced using these related species and provide several examples of how exotic and related species have been used successfully to incorporate pathogen resistance traits.
Technical Abstract: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) that has been cultivated for thousands of years. Areas of production range from subsistence farming to large scale commercial operations and are in all continents except Antarctica. Total worldwide peanut production is approximately 45 million MT per year, with an average yield of 2,600kg/ha. The genus Arachis contains 82 described species that contain a vast reservoir of useful traits that are in some cases not readily accessible. One or more chromosome doubling events formed A. hypogaea effectively isolating the cultivated peanut (2n=4x=40) from its wild relatives (2n=2x=20). This type of reproductive isolation created a significant genetic bottleneck that has resulted in a narrow genetic base in A. hypogaea and left the cultigen without access to many of the alleles needed for resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. However, these can still be found in the related germplasm. Based on the importance of this crop to many areas of the world, this article will review some of unique taxonomic characteristics of the genus and how it has led to the susceptibility to both biotic and abiotic stressors. It will also discuss how cultivated peanut can be enhanced using exotic and wild germplasm including some of the methods that have been used successfully in the past as well as discuss several examples of how exotic and wild germplasm has been used successfully to incorporate biotic resistance traits.