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Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control Endemic and New and Emerging Influenza A Virus Infections in Swine

Location: Virus and Prion Research

Title: Swine influenza A viruses and pandemic preparedness

Author
item Anderson, Tavis
item Vincent, Amy

Submitted to: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Issue Paper
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/14/2022
Publication Date: 11/14/2022
Citation: Anderson, T.K., Baker, A.L. 2022. Swine influenza A viruses and pandemic preparedness. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Issue Paper. 11(3). https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a038737.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a038737

Interpretive Summary: Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause one of the most important viral respiratory diseases in pigs and humans. Additionally, swine IAV are an ongoing zoonotic threat to humans. Wild waterfowl are the natural host for IAV, and humans are sporadically infected with avian IAV. However, human and swine IAV are linked by regular incursions of human IAV to swine and swine IAV to humans. This bidirectional transmission greatly influenced the evolutionary history of IAV in both species and led to the first human pandemic of the twenty-first century in 2009.

Technical Abstract: Influenza A viruses (IAV) are the causative agents of one of the most important viral respiratory diseases in pigs and humans. Additionally, swine IAV are an ongoing zoonotic threat to humans. Wild waterfowl are the natural host for IAV, and humans are sporadically infected with avian IAV. However, human and swine IAV are linked by regular incursions of human IAV to swine and swine IAV to humans. This bidirectional transmission greatly influenced the evolutionary history of IAV in both species and led to the first human pandemic of the twenty-first century in 2009. Zoonotic IAV was ranked the number one priority during a One Health zoonotic disease prioritization workshop in the USA. IAV in swine is a primary example of a One Health challenge for human and animal health, requiring response to zoonotic human infections by swine IAV (called variants); strategies to minimize swine infections by human seasonal IAV; and integrated pandemic prevention plans. Public health documented zoonotic infection of people with swine IAV for the past several decades, which generally resulted in an influenza-like illness similar to human seasonal IAV with limited onward human-to-human transmission. The most dramatic exception to this was the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm09) with sustained global transmission. Novel IAV that are detected in humans are concerning, but those with little immunity in the human population and capable of human-to-human transmission are of particular concern.