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ARS Home » Southeast Area » New Orleans, Louisiana » Southern Regional Research Center » Food Processing and Sensory Quality Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #390075

Research Project: Improving Evaluation of Catfish Quality and Reducing Fish Waste

Location: Food Processing and Sensory Quality Research

Title: Biochemical analysis of protein compositions among pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars grown in the Northwest U.S.

Author
item CHOI, HALLE - Washington State University
item TAGHVAEI, MOSTAFA - University Of Idaho
item Smith, Brennan
item GANJYAL, GIRISH - Washington State University

Submitted to: ACS Food Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/25/2022
Publication Date: 6/14/2022
Citation: Choi, H., Taghvaei, M., Smith, B., Ganjyal, G. 2022. Biochemical analysis of protein compositions among pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars grown in the Northwest U.S.. ACS Food Science and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsfoodscitech.1c00460.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsfoodscitech.1c00460

Interpretive Summary: The use of pea proteins in foods is currently limited by variability in their physical properties and a lack of knowledge of the biochemistry leading to this variability. This research provides ranges of physical and biochemical variability present in peas grown in the Northwestern U.S.A. Protein composition (vicilin, convicilin, and legumin) was measured in 62 pea samples in their whole seed pea flours. Molecular weight distributions, composition of extracted proteins, and amino acid profiles were assessed. Vicilin content ranged from 31.54 to 72.95% with a mean of 52.72% across all samples. Convicilin content ranged from 0 to 12.19% and had a mean of 4.53%. Legumin content ranged from 18.49 to 52.36% with a mean of 30.06%. The ratio of vicilin to legumin ranged from 0.76 to 3.81 and had a mean of 2.03. There was no differences between the protein subclasses of peas based on any agronomic traits tested.

Technical Abstract: There is a growing interest in the food industry for application of pea protein isolates in various food products. The use of pea proteins is currently limited by a lack of knowledge of their biochemistry. Previous reports of the interactive effects of genotype, year, and growing location on pea globulin ratios requires analysis of regional varieties. This research provides ranges of physical and biochemical variability present in peas grown in the Northwestern U.S.A. Protein composition (vicilin, convicilin, and legumin) was measured in 62 pea samples in their whole seed pea flours. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to assess molecular weight distributions and composition of extracted proteins. Amino acid composition of all 62 samples was also determined. Vicilin content ranged from 31.54 to 72.95% with a mean of 52.72% across all samples. Convicilin content ranged from 0 to 12.19% and had a mean of 4.53%. Legumin content ranged from 18.49 to 52.36% with a mean of 30.06%. The ratio of vicilin to legumin ranged from 0.76 to 3.81 and had a mean of 2.03. There was no differences between the functional proteins of peas based on any agronomic traits. Green pea seeds had a higher percentage of essential amino acids than yellow pea seeds. Based on this data, green peas should be used more frequently in protein products that want to supply the consumer with a complete nutritional protein.