|WICKRAMASURIYA, SAMIRU - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
|PARK, INKYUNG - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
|LEE, KYUNGWOO - Konkuk University
|LEE, YOUNGSUB - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
|KIM, WOOHYUN - Gyeongsang National University
|NAM, HYOYUN - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
Submitted to: Vaccines
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/19/2022
Publication Date: 1/22/2022
Citation: Wickramasuriya, S., Park, I., Lee, K., Lee, Y., Kim, W., Nam, H., Lillehoj, H.S. 2022. Role of physiology, immunity, microbiota and enteric diseases in gut health in poultry. Vaccines. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020172.
Interpretive Summary: There is a timely need to understand the importance of gut health in poultry production systems. Although substantial scientific findings on the gut health have been elucidated, deeper understanding of its composition, importance, or interactions is still at a naïve stage. In this comprehensive invited literature review, ARS and collaborating scientists discuss various components of gut health and antibiotic-independent strategies to maintain gut homeostasis in poultry production in this post-antibiotic era. This review will provide much needed up-to-date information on gut health topics that will benefit researchers and field practitioners in animal agriculture.
Technical Abstract: There is a timely need to better understand various factors that affect gut health in poultry since poultry meat represents a significant source of protein for human diet. “Gut Health” refers to the physical state and physiological function of the gastrointestinal tract, and in animal production system, the topic of gut health is often focused on the complex interacting components of the intestinal system that influence animal growth performance and host-microbial homeostasis. Regardless, there is an increasing need to better understand the complexity of the intestinal system, and the various factors that influence gut health since intestine is the largest immune and neuroendocrine organ that interacts with the largest microbiome population. As we face the post-antibiotic era, animal agriculture needs more options to deal with food security, food safety, and antibiotic resilience to maintain agricultural sustainability to feed the ever-increasing human population. Furthermore, developing novel antibiotic alternative strategies needs a comprehensive understanding of internal factors which are involved in maintaining homeostasis in the gut including immune system, gut microbiota, farming practices, climate changes, and consumers' preferences for food. In this review, we assemble and summarize the relevant information on chicken gut health to provide deeper insights into developing logical strategies to reduce the use of antibiotics in poultry production. Due to the broad and complex nature of the concept of ‘gut health’, we have only highlighted the most pertinent factors related to the field performance of broiler chickens.