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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Hilo, Hawaii » Daniel K. Inouye U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center » Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #388366

Research Project: Development of New and Improved Surveillance, Detection, Control, and Management Technologies for Fruit Flies and Invasive Pests of Tropical and Subtropical Crops

Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

Title: Pathway analysis: Likelihood of Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari) introduction into the Hawaiian Islands by air passenger travel

item TAKEUCHI, YU - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item BENAVIDES, PABLO - Cenicafe
item Johnson, Melissa
item Follett, Peter
item HOSSAIN KHALID, MOHAMMAD - North Carolina State University
item NAVARRO, LUCIO - Cenicafe
item GIRALDO, MARISOL - Cenicafe

Submitted to: Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/11/2022
Publication Date: 1/21/2022
Citation: Takeuchi, Y., Benavides, P., Johnson, M.A., Follett, P.A., Hossain Khalid, M., Navarro, L., Giraldo, M. 2022. Pathway analysis: Likelihood of Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari) introduction into the Hawaiian Islands by air passenger travel. Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings. 54:1-20.

Interpretive Summary: In the present study, we characterized the probability of human-mediated introduction and dispersal of CBB to Hawaii by air transport. Our quantitative model suggested that there was a 76% probability that passengers could bring CBB-infested materials from foreign countries to Hawaii, and that further dispersal between Hawaiian Islands was also likely occurring through this pathway. However, since the predicted number of passengers bringing infested materials into Hawaii is small compared to the annual number of international visitors, detecting passengers with infested materials may be challenging. We therefore suggest implementing more focused inspection protocols at U.S. POE, targeting inspection of passengers traveling from countries with pests and diseases that are a high risk to Hawaii’s agricultural industry and/or native biodiversity. This may include countries with a tropical or subtropical climate that is similar to Hawaii, which would indicate a higher likelihood of pests and diseases from these countries finding suitable climate and hosts upon arrival. We also suggest a pre-boarding inspection program for inter-island travelers to limit the possibility of pest and disease dispersal between islands, particularly for those passengers departing from Oahu to neighboring islands. Ultimately, these focused inspection protocols at Hawaii’s airports will help mitigate the likelihood of new pest and disease introduction via air passengers and reduce the economic costs associated with eradication programs.

Technical Abstract: The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) is considered the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing significant reductions in both the yield and quality of coffee products. CBB was first detected in the Kona coffee-growing district of Hawaii Island in 2010. Since then, CBB has spread to all other major coffee-growing regions across the state. In this study, we conducted a quantitative risk assessment to determine the likelihood and frequency of human-mediated CBB introduction to Hawaii via air transport, as well as dispersal pathways between islands. More than 10 million people visited Hawaii in 2019, with most passengers coming from the mainland United States, Japan, and Canada. Although the detection rate of CBB on air passengers was very low, the model suggested that there could be at least one passenger bringing CBB-infested materials to Hawaii every year. In addition, we found that Oahu is the most likely source of new pest introductions to neighboring islands given the large number of passengers that depart from the Honolulu International Airport. We suggest implementing inspections of foreign arrivals and inter-island passengers as well as establishing annual inspection routines to intercept infested materials coming into the state. These types of programs will provide the data needed to fine tune statistical models that can be used to predict future introductions. Ultimately these models will serve as critically important tools for crop and commodity protection in Hawaii by improving biosecurity standards and informing the development of emergency response plans for new invasive pests and diseases.