Location: Arkansas Children's Nutrition CenterTitle: Adults who are overweight or obese and consuming an energy-restricted healthy US-style eating pattern at either the recommended or a higher protein quantity perceive a shift from "poor" to "good" sleep
|HUDSON, JOSHUA - Arkansas Children'S Nutrition Research Center (ACNC)|
|ZHOU, J - Purdue University|
|CAMPBELL, WAYNE - Purdue University|
Submitted to: Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/11/2020
Publication Date: 10/23/2020
Citation: Hudson, J.L., Zhou, J., Campbell, W.W. 2020. Adults who are overweight or obese and consuming an energy-restricted healthy US-style eating pattern at either the recommended or a higher protein quantity perceive a shift from "poor" to "good" sleep: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Nutrition. 150(12):3216-3223. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa302.
Interpretive Summary: A limited number of studies demonstrate that consuming a higher protein diet may improve the sleep of overweight and obese adults; however, these results are inconclusive. We sought to assess the effects of consuming a weight loss diet that conformed to a Healthy U.S.-Style Eating Pattern at a normal versus higher protein intake for 12 weeks. We found that objective sleep quality did not change over the 12 weeks; however, regardless of protein quantity consumed, weigh loss was associated with improved subjective feelings of sleep quality.
Technical Abstract: Limited evidence suggests that consuming a higher-protein diet during weight loss improves subjective indices of sleep in overweight and obese adults. We sought to a priori assess the effects of consuming the recommended versus a higher protein healthy US-Style Eating Pattern during energy-restriction on sleep quality indices. Using a randomized, parallel study design, 51 adults (mean +/- SEM age: 47 +/- 1 y; BMI: 32.6 +/-0.5 kg/m2) consumed a controlled USDA Healthy US-Style Eating Pattern containing 750 kcal/d less than their estimated energy requirement for 12 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to consume either 5 or 12.5 oz-equivalent (eq)/d of protein foods. The additional 7.5 oz-eq/d came from animal-based protein sources and displaced primarily grains. Objective (wrist-worn actigraphy) and subjective (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) sleep quality indices were measured at baseline, week 6, and week 12. Among all participants, body mass decreased (-6.2 +/- 0.4 kg). Dietary protein intake did not affect any objective or subjective sleep quality outcomes measured (repeated measures ANOVA). Over time, objective measures of time spent in bed, time spent sleeping, sleep onset latency, and time awake after sleep onset did not change; however, sleep efficiency improved (1 +/- 1%; P = 0.027). Subjectively, global sleep scores [GSS: -2.7 +/- 0.4 arbitrary units (au)] and daytime sleepiness scores (-3.8 +/- 0.4 au; both P < 0.001) improved over time. The GSS improvement transitioned the participants from being categorized with "poor" to "good" sleep (GSS: >5 compared with <=5 au of a 0–21 au scale; baseline 7.6 +/- 0.4 au, week 12: 4.8 +/- 0.4 au). Although objective sleep quality may not improve, adults who are overweight or obese and poor sleepers may become good sleepers while consuming either the recommended or a higher-protein energy-restricted Healthy US-Style Eating Pattern.