Location: Grape Genetics Research Unit (GGRU)Title: The genetic basis of anthocyanin acylation in North American grapes (Vitis spp.)
|KARN, AVINAH - Cornell University - New York|
|DIAZ-GARCIA, LUIS - Instituto Nacional De Investigaciones Forestales Y Agropecuarias (INIFAP)|
|RESHEF, NOAM - Cornell University - New York|
|YANG, SHANSHAN - Cornell University - New York|
|ZOU, CHENG - Cornell University - New York|
|MANNS, DAVE - Cornell University - New York|
|SUN, QI - Cornell University - New York|
|MANSFIELD, ANNA - Cornell University - New York|
|REISCH, BRUCE - Cornell University - New York|
|SACKS, GAVIN - Cornell University - New York|
Submitted to: Genes
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/3/2021
Publication Date: 12/9/2021
Citation: Karn, A., Diaz-Garcia, L., Reshef, N., Yang, S., Zou, C., Manns, D., Sun, Q., Cadle Davidson, L.E., Mansfield, A.K., Reisch, B.I., Sacks, G. 2021. The genetic basis of anthocyanin acylation in North American grapes (Vitis spp.). Genes. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12121962.
Interpretive Summary: Acylated anthocyanins increase color stability in grape products, such as wine. To characterize the genetic basis of acylated anthocyanins in grapes, we analyzed two closely related families. Full siblings fell into two classes in both families, high and low acylation, with results being reproducible year after year. Genetic analysis identified a single genetic region on chromosome 3 inherited from the parent 'Horizon' in both families, explaining nearly all of the observed variation in acylation. Several genes in this region were identified that could logically cause variation in acylation. In particular, a gene encoding an anthocyanin acyltransferase protein was found near the most strongly associated DNA marker. Additional genetic regions were found in chromosomes 9, 10, 15 and 16; however, their effects were minor or not reproducible. The DNA markers reported here could be immediately used in current grapevine breeding efforts to accelerate the development of cultivars with improved fruit quality characteristics.
Technical Abstract: Hydroxycinnamylated anthocyanins (or simply ‘acylated anthocyanins’) increase color stability in grape products, such as wine. Several genes that are relevant for anthocyanin acylation in grapes have been previously described, however, control of the degree of acylation in grape is complicated by lack of marker-trait associations. To characterize the genetic basis of anthocyanin acylation in grapevine, we analyzed the acylation ratio in two closely related biparental families, Vitis rupestris B38 × ‘Horizon’ and ‘Horizon’ × Illinois 547-1, for 2 and 3 years, respectively. The acylation ratio followed a bimodal and skewed distribution in both families, with repeatability estimates larger than 0.84. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with highly transferable amplicon-based markers (rhAmpSeq) identified a strong QTL from ‘Horizon’ on chromosome 3, near 15.85Mb in both families and across years, explaining up to 85.2% of the phenotypic variance. Multiple candidate genes were identified in the 14.8-18Mb interval, in particular, a gene encoding an anthocyanin acyltransferase protein was found ~175Kb downstream from the most strongly associated marker (15.85Mb). Additional population-specific QTLs were found in chromosomes 9, 10, 15 and 16, however, no candidate genes were described. The rhAmpSeq markers reported here could be immediately implemented in current grapevine breeding efforts to control the degree of anthocyanin acylation and improve the quality of grapes and their products.