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Research Project: Elucidating the Factors that Determine the Ecology of Human Pathogens in Foods

Location: Produce Safety and Microbiology Research

Title: Overview of methodologies for the culturing, recovery and detection of Campylobacter

Author
item SOTO-BELTRAN, MARCELA - Autonomous University Of Sinaloa
item Lee, Bertram
item AMEZQUITA-LOPEZ, BIANCA - Autonomous University Of Sinaloa
item Quiñones, Beatriz

Submitted to: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/11/2022
Publication Date: 2/16/2022
Citation: Soto-Beltran, M., Lee, B.G., Amezquita-Lopez, B.A., Quinones, B. 2022. Overview of methodologies for the culturing, recovery and detection of Campylobacter. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2022.2029366.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2022.2029366

Interpretive Summary: Campylobacter infections have been recognized as a frequent cause of human gastrointestinal infection with diverse clinical spectra, ranging from acute watery or bloody diarrhoea, and fever. In some cases, infection can result in the life-threatening symptoms that may lead to autoimmune conditions known as Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome as well as inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett’s esophagus, and colorectal cancer. Human infections are mostly caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, which are gram-negative, thermophilic, obligate microaerophilic bacterial species. These organisms are ubiquitous in temperate environments and exist as a commensals in the intestinal tract of many wild and domestic birds and mammals. Campylobacter infections in humans are usually acquired through the consumption of undercooked poultry or contaminated drinking water or milk. Variation in the number of human campylobacteriosis around the world, arise in part, from differences in the growth and survival requirements of the pathogens as well as the low sensitivity of detection methodologies. Due to the clinical importance, a number of methods have been developed to determine the prevalence, pathogenicity, and phylogenetic relationships of Campylobacter isolates. The objective of this article is to examine current techniques for the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Campylobacter to provide a better understanding of risks associated with Campylobacter infections and enable the development of efficient and targeted intervention strategies.

Technical Abstract: Campylobacter species are responsible for the highest percentage of gastroenteritis worldwide with diverse clinical spectra. In the present study, the current methodologies and molecular characterization techniques for assessing the phenotypic, genotypic and functional characteristics of Campylobacter were examined. Traditional culture and isolation methods, including selective enrichment methods, and differential plating, were compared in the efficacy to enable the recovery of Campylobacter species. Following recovery, immunological serotyping and molecular genotyping methods, including multiplex PCR, multilocus sequence typing, and whole genome sequencing were reviewed in their ability to determine the virulence profile in the isolates. Moreover, the examination of flagella-mediated motility, bacterial adherence and invasiveness to intestinal mucosa, and the ability to produce toxins enabled a better assessment of the pathogenic potential of recovered Campylobacter isolates. Although poultry is the main animal reservoir for these pathogens, research evidence documented Campylobacter spp. to be also recovered from domestic animals, dogs, wild birds, ducks, geese, seagulls, and rodents as well as other sources of contamination, such as contaminated water, unpasteurized milk and vegetables. Finally, antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is a matter of growing concern, supporting the need to closely monitor the use of these agents by private, public and veterinary sectors. In summary, the information, discussed in the present study, will provide a better understanding of risks associated with Campylobacter infections, and further research will aid in the development of efficient and targeted intervention strategies.